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(USA) (American Colonies)

Visit United States. Discover its history. Learn about the people who lived there through stories, old newspaper articles, pictures, postcards and ancestry.

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 United States - Thomas Circle, Washington, D.C.

In 1853. George Crum, of the United States, invented potato chips. We imagine his version of the snack contained far less chemicals than the potato chips of today.

An important invention coming from the United States was that of toilet paper, invented in 1857 by Joseph Gayetty. Thank you, Joseph!

U.S. Christmas: Immigrant settlers brought Father Christmas to the United States. Father Christmas's name was gradually changed to Santa Claus, from the Dutch name for Father Christmas, which is Sinter Claas. Although he has origins in Norse and pre-Christian mythology, Santa Claus took shape in the United States. Americans gave Santa Claus a white beard, dressed him in a red suit and made him a cheery old gentleman with red cheeks and a twinkle in his eye. American children believe that Santa Claus lives at the North Pole with his wife. All year he lists the names of children, both those who have been good and those who have been bad. He decides what presents to give to the good children. He oversees the manufacturing and wrapping of the presents by his helpers.

There is MUCH more to discover about United States. Read on!

United States Nostalgia: Vintage Photos, Ads, and Postcards

Thomas Circle, Washington, D.C.
United States

Thomas Circle, Washington, D.C.
1861 ad

For President and Vice-President
For President: Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi
For Vic
United States

1861 ad

For President and Vice-President
For President: Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi
For Vice-President: Alexander H. Stephens, of Georgia

The Semi-Weekly State Journal
Raleigh, North Carolina
September 18, 1861
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1884 Grover Cleveland campaign poster
United States

1884 Grover Cleveland campaign poster
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Love Lessons from the Lowly

Plain Dealer
November 16, 1896
United States

Love Lessons from the Lowly

Plain Dealer
November 16, 1896
Open Air Courtship

Plain Dealer
June 28, 1898
United States

Open Air Courtship

Plain Dealer
June 28, 1898
1898 Free Fairy Calendar

The Ladies' Home Journal
January 1898
United States

1898 Free Fairy Calendar

The Ladies' Home Journal
January 1898
Quaker Oats

The Ladies' Home Journal
February 1898
United States

Quaker Oats

The Ladies' Home Journal
February 1898
Herald Square, New York, New York
United States

Herald Square, New York, New York
William Jennings Bryan Campaign Poster (1900)
United States

William Jennings Bryan Campaign Poster (1900)
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William McKinley Campaign Poster (1900)
United States

William McKinley Campaign Poster (1900)
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Times Square, New York City
United States

Times Square, New York City
1900 advertisement
What Shall We Have for Dessert?

Lewiston Journal
Lewiston, Maine
United States

1900 advertisement
What Shall We Have for Dessert?

Lewiston Journal
Lewiston, Maine
October 1, 1900
Washing and Drying the Hair

National Labor Tribune
February 1, 1900
United States

Washing and Drying the Hair

National Labor Tribune
February 1, 1900
The Ideal Brain Tonic
Delightful Summer and Winter Beverage
Specific for Headache
Relieves Mental
United States

The Ideal Brain Tonic
Delightful Summer and Winter Beverage
Specific for Headache
Relieves Mental & Physical Exhaustion
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1918 Red Cross ad
United States

1918 Red Cross ad
Read more about Clarissa Harlowe "Clara" BARTON photo of ancestor
Michigan Ave. Bridge, Chicago, Illinois
United States

Michigan Ave. Bridge, Chicago, Illinois
Fisherman's Wharf, San Francisco, California
United States

Fisherman's Wharf, San Francisco, California
World War II Red Cross ad
United States

World War II Red Cross ad
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Escape Gray Hair

Canute Water

The Berkshire Evening Eagle
Pittsfield, Massachusetts
March 14
United States

Escape Gray Hair

Canute Water

The Berkshire Evening Eagle
Pittsfield, Massachusetts
March 14, 1944
Pillsbury's Soy Golden Bake Mix

Exciting Muffin with SOY!

The Berkshire Evening Eagle
United States

Pillsbury's Soy Golden Bake Mix

Exciting Muffin with SOY!

The Berkshire Evening Eagle
Pittsfield, Massachusetts
March 14, 1944
WWII ad for Camel cigarettes

The Berkshire Evening Eagle
Pittsfield, Massachusetts
March 14, 19
United States

WWII ad for Camel cigarettes

The Berkshire Evening Eagle
Pittsfield, Massachusetts
March 14, 1944

Discover United States : History, News, Travel, and Stories

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1753 - The lightning rod is invented (Benjamin Franklin, United States)
"Those of our Readers in this and the neighboring Provinces, who may have had an Opportunity of observing, during the present Summer, and of the Effects of Lightning on Houses, Ships, Trees, &c. are requested to take particular Notice of its Course, and Deviation from a strait Line in the Walls or other Matter affected by it, its different Operations or Effects on Wood, Stone, Bricks, Glass, Metals, Animal Bodies, &c. and every other Circumstance that may tend to discover the Nature, and compleat the History of that terrible Meteor. Such Observations being put in Writing, and communicated to Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia, will be very thankfully accepted and acknowledged."

The Philadelphia Gazette, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 21, 1753

"...In short, to use the handsome language of president Adams, 'nothing, perhaps, that ever occurred on earth, could have better tended to confer universal celebrity on man than did these lightning rods of doctor Franklin's. The idea was... Read MORE...

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1764 - British Government issues the Sugar Act
The Sugar Act raised revenues higher than ever before by a new series of taxes on the colonists.
World History, Part Two, Arco Publishing, Inc., New York, 1980
1765 - November - The British government issues the Stamp Act.
First direct British tax on American colonists. Instituted in November, 1765. Every newspaper, pamphlet, and other public and legal document had to have a Stamp, or British seal, on it. The Stamp, of course, cost money. The colonists didn't think they should have to pay for something they had been doing for free for many years, and they responded in force, with demonstrations and even with a diplomatic body called the Stamp Act Congress, which delivered its answer to the Crown. Seeing the hostile reaction in the colonies, the British government repealed the Stamp Act in March 1766 but at the same time passed the Declaratory Act, which said that Great Britain was superior (and boss of) the American colonies "in all cases whatsoever." The Stamp Act gave the colonists a target for their rage. Indeed, the Sons of Liberty was formed in response to this Act. The Stamp Act Congress also gave the colonists a model for the Continental Congress.
November 1, 1765
1769 - By marriage, the husband and wife are one person in the law
American colonies based their laws on the English common law, which was summarized in the Blackstone Commentaries. It said, “By marriage, the husband and wife are one person in the law? The very being and legal existence of the woman is suspended during the marriage, or at least is incorporated into that of her husband under whose wing and protection she performs everything.”
1774 - March - The Coercive Acts (called Intolerable Acts by Americans)
The Intolerable Acts was the American Patriots' name for a series of punitive laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 after the Boston Tea party. They were meant to punish the Massachusetts colonists for their defiance in throwing a large tea shipment into Boston harbor.
1775 - April 18 - Paul Revere's famous ride
In 1774 and the Spring of 1775 Paul Revere was employed by the Boston Committee of Correspondence and the Massachusetts Committee of Safety as an express rider to carry news, messages, and copies of resolutions as far away as New York and Philadelphia.

On the evening of April 18, 1775, Paul Revere was sent for by Dr. Joseph Warren and instructed to ride to Lexington, Massachusetts, to warn Samuel Adams and John Hancock that British troops were marching to arrest them. After being rowed across the Charles River to Charlestown by two associates, Paul Revere borrowed a horse from his friend Deacon John Larkin. While in Charlestown, he verified that the local "Sons of Liberty" committee had seen his pre-arranged signals. (Two lanterns had been hung briefly in the bell-tower of Christ Church in Boston, indicating that troops would row "by sea" across the Charles River to Cambridge, rather than marching "by land" out Boston Neck. Revere had arranged for these signals the previous... Read MORE...

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1775 - April 19 - First shots of Revolutionary War fired in Lexington and Concord.
The Battles of Lexington and Concord, fought on April 19, 1775, kicked off the American Revolutionary War (1775-83). Tensions had been building for many years between residents of the 13 American colonies and the British authorities, particularly in Massachusetts. On the night of April 18, 1775, hundreds of British troops marched from Boston to nearby Concord in order to seize an arms cache. Paul Revere and other riders sounded the alarm, and colonial militiamen began mobilizing to intercept the Redcoat column. A confrontation on the Lexington town green started off the fighting, and soon the British were hastily retreating under intense fire. Many more battles followed, and in 1783 the colonists formally won their independence.
April 19, 1775
June 14, 1775 - Colonies establish a Continental Army to be headed by George Washington.

June 14, 1775

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October 1775 - Continental Navy created

1775 - December 31 - The Battle of Québec was fought on December 31 between the American Continental Army and British defenders of Québec City. It was the first major defeat for the Americans in the Revolutionary War.

December 31, 1775
1776 - May - 10,000 British and German troops arrive in May and drive the Continental Army out of the province of Québec

May 1, 1776
1776 - May 2: The American revolution gains support from King Louis XVI of France

May 2, 1776

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1776 - July 4 - American Declaration of Independence
TRENTON, July 8.

The declaration of Independence was this day proclaimed here, together with the new constitution of late, established, and the resolve of the Provincial Congress for continuing the administration of justice during the interim.

The members of the Provincial Congress, the gentlemen of the Committee, the officers and privates of the Militia under arms and a large concourse of the inhabitants attended on this great and solemn occasion. The declaration and other proceedings were received with loud acclamations.

The people are now convinced of what we ought long since to have known, that our enemies have left us no middle way between perfect freedom and abject slavery.

In the Field we hope, as well as in Council, the inhabitants of New Jersey will be found ever ready to support the Freedom and Independence of America.

The Pennsylvania Packet
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
July 15, 1776
1776 - September 9 - Congress renames the nation "United States of America"
On this day in 1776, the Continental Congress formally declares the name of the new nation to be the "United States" of America. This replaced the term "United Colonies," which had been in general use.

In the Congressional declaration dated September 9, 1776, the delegates wrote, "That in all continental commissions, and other instruments, where, heretofore, the words 'United Colonies' have been used, the stile be altered for the future to the "United States."...
September 9, 1776
1777 - All states pass laws which take away women’s right to vote.
1777 - November 15 - The Articles of Confederation Were Adopted
On November 15, 1777, the second Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union. Then they needed approval from the states.

Still at war with Great Britain, the colonists were not eager to establish another powerful national government. Three-and-a-half years passed before the states ratified the Articles.

Eventually replaced by the United States Constitution of 1789, the Articles of Confederation did provide some stability during the Revolutionary War years. Most important, they provided valuable lessons in self-governance and somewhat calmed fears about a powerful central government.
November 15, 1777
1784 - The bifocal lens is invented (Benjamin Franklin, United States)
"While living in Paris, Franklin hated having to change constantly from reading glasses to distance glasses. He directed an optician to cut two pairs of lenses horizontally in half and mount them in a new frame, with the reading lens at the bottom and the distance lens at the top - Voila, Bifocals!" (

"In a letter to George Wheatley, dated Passy, May, 23, 1783, Benjamin Franklin describes and illustrates a pair of bifocal glasses which had had made for his use by Dollond, the famous optician of London. Just why this useful invention of Franklin's was allowed to lapse into obscurity for many generations after its discovery, is not known. One one think that a practical optician such as Dollond would have grasped its value, and that its usefulness, so easily demonstrated, would have introduced it at once into popular vogue.

Franklin, following his invariable custom, did not patent his idea, so that there was no restriction on Dollond or any other optician who wished to make ... Read MORE...

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1784 - January 14 - The Continental Congress Ratified the Treaty of Paris Ending the Revolutionary War
On September 3, 1783, more than a year after the last shots were fired, a peace treaty was drawn up in Paris. Under the terms of the treaty, the United States was granted territory as far west as the Mississippi River.

After the Treaty of Paris was signed, it was sent to the Continental Congress. The United States had six months to ratify the document and return it to England. With the journey requiring approximately two months, the treaty needed to be on its way back to England by January. The valuable document almost did not arrive in time.

A ratifying convention was scheduled at the Maryland State House in November, but many of the delegates did not arrive right away. By January 12, only seven of the 13 states had sent their representatives. Operating under the weak Articles of Confederation, the Continental Congress lacked the power to enforce attendance at the convention. On January 13, the convention needed one more delegate. Finally, South Carolina Representative Richard ... Read MORE...

1787 - September 17 - U.S. Constitution ratified
The Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia met between May and September of 1787 to address the problems of the weak central government that existed under the Articles of Confederation. The United States Constitution that emerged from the convention established a federal government with more specific powers, including those related to conducting relations with foreign governments. Under the reformed federal system, many of the responsibilities for foreign affairs fell under the authority of an executive branch, although important powers, such as treaty ratification, remained the responsibility of the legislative branch. After the necessary number of state ratifications, the Constitution came into effect in 1789 and has served as the basis of the United States Government ever since.
September 17, 1787
1789 - April 30 - George Washington (1732–1799) became 1st President of the United States
On April 30, 1789, in a deep, low voice, George Washington gave his first speech as president of the United States. This speech is now known as the first presidential inaugural address. He spoke to a joint session of Congress that had gathered in Federal Hall (New York City, then the nation's capital).

Washington kept his first speech very simple. He spoke about ideas for amendments to the Constitution. He finished by asking for a “divine blessing” on the American people and their elected representatives.

It may sound odd, but George Washington did not run for president of the United States. He did not want to be president. George Washington hesitated at first about becoming President, but he served two terms in office.
April 30, 1789

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1789 - September 29 - Congress Officially Created the U.S. Military
In its very first session, the United States Congress had a lot of decisions to make. One important topic the first representatives and senators needed to address was establishing the U.S. military. There already was a colonial army - the Continental Army - that had fought the British in the American Revolution and won under General George Washington. But this army was not the official army of the United States.

Finally, on September 29, 1789, the last day of its first session, the U.S. Congress passed an act to establish the United States military.
September 29, 1789

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1791 - December 15 - The Bill of Rights takes effect
The Bill of Rights is the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, confirming the fundamental rights of American citizens. The First Amendment guarantees freedom of religion, speech, and the press, the rights of peaceful assembly and petition.

George Mason, the "Father of the Bill of Rights," carefully wrote out these amendments to ensure individual liberties. He was a lifelong champion of the rights and freedoms of people.

The first 10 amendments guarantee the right of the people to keep and bear arms, the rights of private property, fair treatment of those accused of crimes, protection from unreasonable search and seizure, freedom from self-incrimination, a speedy and impartial jury trial, and representation by counsel.
December 15, 1791
1793 - The cotton gin is invented (Eli Whitney, United States)
"In 1793, Eli Whitney invented a simple machine that influenced the history of the United States. He invented a cotton gin that was popular in the South. The South became the cotton producing part of the country because Whitney’s cotton gin was able to successfully pull out the seeds from the cotton bolls.

Eli Whitney was born in Westboro, Massachusetts on December 8, 1765 and died on January 8, 1825. As a young boy he liked to work in his father’s workshop taking things apart, like clocks, and putting them back together again. When he was a young man, he worked on a Georgian plantation tutoring children. He noticed the trouble the slaves were having picking seed from cotton bolls. In his spare time, he put together an instrument that would allow the slaves to clean more cotton in a shorter amount of time.

The cotton gin was a very simple invention. First, the cotton bolls were put into the top of the machine. Next, you turn the handle, which turns the cotton through the ... Read MORE...

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1797 - March 4 - John Adams (1735-1826) becomes 2nd President of the United States
The presidential election was the first contested election in the United States. When the final tabulation of votes arrived at the senate, ironically it was Adams who opened the envelope as he was President of the Senate. John Adams won with seventy one votes and Thomas Jefferson received sixty eight therefore becoming Vice President. As expected Adams received every Electoral College vote from New England while Jefferson controlled the South. Adams served for one term from 1797 to 1801 and was succeeded by Thomas Jefferson. presidency/
March 4, 1797

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1800 - Population of the United States of America - 5,308,500

1801 - March 4 - Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) becomes 3rd President of the United States
On February 17, 1801, Thomas Jefferson was elected president of the United States, but there was more to it than beating his opponent. When Thomas Jefferson ran for president, he beat his opponent, John Adams, but he tied with his running mate, Aaron Burr. So, who was to be the president and who was to be the vice president? It was up to the House of Representatives to decide, and most of the congressmen did not like the idea of voting for Jefferson. He wasn't even a member of the same political party as they were. Jefferson and Burr campaigned against each other for six days. Finally, Thomas Jefferson won the support of Congress and became the third president of the United States. Burr, as a result, became vice president. Congress decided to establish a process so they wouldn't have to make that decision again.

Three years after Jefferson was elected, the Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution was adopted. This amendment states that the ballots used in the election process should... Read MORE...

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1803 - October 20 - Louisiana Purchase - The United States doubled its size by purchasing this territory from Spain.
Senate Ratified the Louisiana Purchase Treaty

In the 1800s, in the United States, pioneers and homesteaders eagerly moved west to start a new life in the plains, hills and mountains west of the Mississippi River. This movement could not have happened without the Louisiana Purchase Treaty, approved by the Senate on October 20, 1803, by a vote of 24-to-7. The agreement, which provided for the purchase of the western half of the Mississippi River basin from France at a price of approximately 4 cents per acre, doubled the size of the country.
October 20, 1803
1804 - July 11 - Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr Dueled to the Death
On the morning of July 11, 1804, Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr raised their dueling pistols and took aim. Hamilton, the former secretary of the treasury, and Vice President Burr were longstanding political rivals and personal enemies. Burr might have been the president instead of vice president, had it not been for Hamilton's interference. When Burr's term as vice president was almost over, he ran for governor of New York. Hamilton, once again, prevented Burr from winning by opposing his candidacy. Burr retaliated by challenging Hamilton to a duel.

Standing on the heights of Weehawken, New Jersey, Hamilton and Burr fired their pistols. Some people said that Hamilton purposely missed Burr. Burr's shot, however, fatally wounded Hamilton, leading to his death the following day. Aaron Burr escaped unharmed.

Burr was indicted for murder, but the charges were later dropped.
July 11, 1804

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1805 - November 15 - Lewis and Clark reach Pacific
Nov. 7, 1805 - Camped opposite Pillar Rock, between Brookfield and Dahlia, Washington, west of Jim Crow Point. "Great joy in camp we are in view of the Ocian this great Pacific Ocean which we been so long anxious to See. and the roreing or noise made by the waves braking on the rockey shores (as I Suppose) may be heard distinctly." Although they were really only seeing the Columbia Estuary, the men of the Corps were certainly happy to be near their goal.

Nov. 15, 1805 - Lewis reached the Pacific Ocean near modern Seaview, Washington. Clark noted that it rained until 3 p.m.; there were 11 straight days of rain; he moved camp once more to Haley's Bay, where they stayed until November 24. jeff/ historyculture/ lewis-and-clark-timeline-1805.htm
November 15, 1805

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1809 - March 4 - James Madison (1751-1836) becomes 4th President of the United States
In 1809, Madison succeeded Jefferson as president, defeating Charles C. Pinckney. His wife, Dolley Payne Todd, whom he married in 1794, brought a new social sparkle to the executive mansion. In the meantime, increasing tension with Britain culminated in the War of 1812—a war for which the United States was unprepared and for which Madison lacked the executive talent to clear out incompetence and mobilize the nation's energies. Madison was reelected in 1812, running against the Federalist De Witt Clinton. In 1814, the British actually captured Washington and forced Madison to flee to Virginia.

Madison's domestic program capitulated to the Hamiltonian policies that he had resisted 20 years before and he now signed bills to establish a United States Bank and a higher tariff.
March 4, 1809

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1816 - Year without a summer
The year 1816 has been aptly characterized as the year without a summer. Several of the preceding summers were so cold as to suggest a possible future famine. This tendency to frigidity reached its greatest intensity in the summer of 1816. The phenomenal coldness of that year was not confined to a small area. It prevailed through the United States and Canada and extended to Europe. That there were reasons for alarm, especially in the new settlements of eastern Maine, already impoverished by untoward events extending through several years, will be understood by a perusal of the following graphic account from a reliable source :

"The year 1816 was known throughout the United States and Europe as the coldest ever experienced by any person then living. Very few persons now living can recollect it. The following is a brief summary of the
weather during each month of that year: January was so mild as to render fires almost unnecessary in parlors. February, with the exception of a few... Read MORE...

1817 - March 4 - James Monroe (1758-1831) becomes 5th President of the United States
Elected president in 1816 over the Federalist Rufus King, and reelected without opposition in 1820, Monroe, the last of the Virginia dynasty, pursued the course of systematic tranquilization that won for his administrations the name “the era of good feeling.” He continued Madison's surrender to the Hamiltonian domestic program, signed the Missouri Compromise, acquired Florida, and with the able assistance of his secretary of state, John Quincy Adams, promulgated the Monroe Doctrine in 1823, declaring against foreign colonization or intervention in the Americas. He died in New York City on July 4, 1831, the third president to die on the anniversary of Independence.
March 4, 1817

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1819 - The Panic of 1819 - A combination of bad banking practices; too much land speculation and competition from Europe caused the United States to enter its first economic depression.
In 1819 a financial panic swept across the country. The growth in trade that followed the War of 1812 came to an abrupt halt. Unemployment mounted, banks failed, mortgages were foreclosed, and agricultural prices fell by half. Investment in western lands collapsed...

The panic had several causes, including a dramatic decline in cotton prices, a contraction of credit by the Bank of the United States designed to curb inflation, an 1817 congressional order requiring hard-currency payments for land purchases, and the closing of many factories due to foreign competition...

By 1823 the panic was over. But it left a lasting imprint on American politics. The panic led to demands for the democratization of state constitutions, an end to restrictions on voting and office holding, and heightened hostility toward banks and other "privileged" corporations and monopolies. The panic also exacerbated tensions within the Republican Party and aggravated sectional tensions as northerners pressed... Read MORE...

1825 - March 4 - John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) becomes 6th President of the United States
When no presidential candidate received a majority of electoral votes in 1824, Adams, with the support of Henry Clay, was elected by the House in 1825 over Andrew Jackson, who had the original plurality. Adams had ambitious plans of government activity to foster internal improvements and promote the arts and sciences, but congressional obstructionism, combined with his own unwillingness or inability to play the role of a politician, resulted in little being accomplished.
March 4, 1825

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1826 - July 4 – Former US Presidents Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both die on the 50th Anniversary of the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence.
On July 4, 1826, at the age of 90, Adams lay on his deathbed while the country celebrated Independence Day. His last words were Thomas Jefferson still survives. He was mistaken: Jefferson had died five hours earlier at Monticello at the age of 82.
July 4, 1826
1827 - February 28 – The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad is incorporated, becoming the first railroad in America offering commercial transportation of both people and freight.
On February 28, 1827, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad became the first U.S. railway chartered for commercial transport of passengers and freight. There were skeptics who doubted that a steam engine could work along steep, winding grades, but the Tom Thumb, designed by Peter Cooper, put an end to their doubts. Investors hoped a railroad would allow Baltimore, the second largest U.S. city at the time, to successfully compete with New York for western trade.

The first railroad track in the United States was only 13 miles long, but it caused a lot of excitement when it opened in 1830. Charles Carroll, the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence, laid the first stone when construction on the track began at Baltimore harbor on July 4, 1828.
February 28, 1827
1829 - March 4 - Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) becomes 7th President of the United States.
As president, Jackson greatly expanded the power and prestige of the presidential office and carried through an unprecedented program of domestic reform, vetoing the bill to extend the United States Bank, moving toward a hard-money currency policy, and checking the program of federal internal improvements. He also vindicated federal authority against South Carolina with its doctrine of nullification and against France on the question of debts. The support given his policies by the workingmen of the East as well as by the farmers of the East, West, and South resulted in his triumphant reelection in 1832 over Clay.
March 4, 1829

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1830 - May 28 – The Indian Removal Act marks the beginning of the forced relocation of five tribes of native Americans, known as Trail of Tears
The Indian Removal Act was a law passed by Congress on May 28, 1830, during the presidency of Andrew Jackson. It authorized the president to negotiate with Indian tribes in the Southern United States for their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their homelands.

The act was strongly supported by non-native people of the South, who were eager to gain access to lands inhabited by the Five Civilized Tribes. Christian missionaries, most notably Jeremiah Evarts, protested against its passage.

The "Five Civilized Tribes," made up of the Chickasaw, Choctaw, Muscogee-Creek, Seminole, and original Cherokee Nations, had been established as autonomous nations in the southeastern United States.

At the beginning of the 1830s, nearly 125,000 Native Americans lived on millions of acres of land in Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina and Florida–land their ancestors had occupied and cultivated for generations. By the end of the... Read MORE...

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1837 - March 4 - Martin Van Buren (1782-1862) becomes 8th President of the United States
In 1832, Van Buren became vice president; in 1836, president. The Panic of 1837 overshadowed his term. He attributed it to the overexpansion of the credit and favored the establishment of an independent treasury as repository for the federal funds. In 1840, he established a 10-hour day on public works. Defeated by Harrison in 1840, he was the leading contender for the Democratic nomination in 1844 until he publicly opposed immediate annexation of Texas, and was subsequently beaten by the Southern delegations at the Baltimore convention. This incident increased his growing misgivings about the slave power.

After working behind the scenes among the anti-slavery Democrats, Van Buren joined in the movement that led to the Free-Soil Party and became its candidate for president in 1848. He subsequently returned to the Democratic Party while continuing to object to its pro-Southern policy.
March 4, 1837

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1837 - The Panic of 1837
The Panic of 1837 was a financial crisis in the United States that touched off a major recession that lasted until the mid-1840s. Profits, prices and wages went down while unemployment went up. Pessimism abounded during the time. The panic had both domestic and foreign origins. Speculative lending practices in western states, a sharp decline in cotton prices, a collapsing land bubble, international specie flows, and restrictive lending policies in Great Britain were all to blame. On May 10, 1837, banks in New York City suspended specie payments, meaning that they would no longer redeem commercial paper in specie at full face value. Despite a brief recovery in 1838, the recession persisted for approximately seven years. Banks collapsed, businesses failed, prices declined, and thousands of workers lost their jobs. Unemployment may have been as high as 25% in some locales. The years 1837 to 1844 were, generally speaking, years of deflation in wages and prices.
1840s - 1880s - The Oregon Trail
The Oregon Trail was a wagon road stretching 2170 miles from Missouri to Oregon's Willamette Valley. It was not a road in any modern sense, only parallel ruts leading across endless prairie, sagebrush desert, and mountains. From the 1840s through the 1880s, thousands trekked westward, carrying only a few belonging and supplies for the journey, and settling on the western frontier, forever changing the American West...
1840 to 1860s - French-Canadian emigration to the United States
The large number of French-Canadians who crossed the border in the nineteenth century, particularly to the New England states, made their choice to seek a better life. These were predominantly young adults, some with families and others who were single. Traditionally, French-Canadian Americans had large families, and these numbers, coupled with dismal economic conditions, drove them south. Some estimates put the extent of the migration at 600,000, which had the effect of draining Canada of a generation.

Work in textile mills and the logging industry—anything besides the backbreaking farm work in Québec—was what drew them. For example, six mills opened in the Lewiston area of the state of Maine alone between 1819 and 1869. When they did settle, French-Canadian Americans sought to build a sense of community much like what they were used to "back home"—centered about a parish church and school, thus combining both the nuclear family and the extended family of the ethnic community. By... Read MORE...

1841 - March 4 - William Henry Harrison (1773-1841) becomes 9th President of the United States - dies one month after assuming the office.
Nominated for president in 1835 as a military hero whom the conservative politicians hoped to be able to control, he ran surprisingly well against Van Buren in 1836. Four years later, he defeated Van Buren but caught pneumonia and died in Washington on April 4, 1841, a month after his inauguration. Harrison was the first president to die in office.
March 4, 1841

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1841 - March 9 – Amistad: The Supreme Court of the United States rules in the case that the Africans who seized control of the ship had been taken into slavery illegally.
March 9, 1841
1841 - April 4 - John Tyler (1790-1862) becomes 10th President of the United States.
Elected vice president on the Whig ticket in 1840, Tyler succeeded to the presidency on Harrison's death. His strict-constructionist views soon caused a split with the Henry Clay wing of the Whig party and a stalemate on domestic questions. Tyler's more considerable achievements were his support of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty with Britain and his success in bringing about the annexation of Texas.
April 4, 1841

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1842 - August 9 – The Webster–Ashburton Treaty is signed, establishing the United States–Canada border east of the Rocky Mountains.
Webster–Ashburton Treaty, (1842), treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain establishing the northeastern boundary of the U.S. and providing for Anglo–U.S. cooperation in the suppression of the slave trade. The treaty established the present boundary between Maine and New Brunswick, granted the U.S. navigation rights on the St. John River, provided for extradition in enumerated nonpolitical criminal cases, and established a joint naval system for suppressing the slave trade off the African coast. The treaty was negotiated by Daniel Webster, at that time secretary of state, and Alexander Baring, 1st Baron Ashburton.
August 9, 1842
1843 - March 21 – The world does not end, contrary to the first prediction by American preacher William Miller.
William Miller is perhaps the most famous false prophet in history. In the 1840s he began to preach about the world's end, saying Jesus Christ would return for the long-awaited Second Coming and that Earth would be engulfed in fire sometime between March 21, 1843, and March 21, 1844. He circulated his message in public gatherings and by using the technologies of the day — posters, printed newsletters and charts. Moved by those messages, as many as 100,000 "Millerites" sold their belongings between 1840 and 1844 and took to the mountains to wait for the end.
March 21, 1843

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1844 - October 22 – This second date, predicted by the Millerites for the Second Coming of Jesus, leads to the Great Disappointment.
William Miller is perhaps the most famous false prophet in history. In the 1840s he began to preach about the world's end, saying Jesus Christ would return for the long-awaited Second Coming and that Earth would be engulfed in fire sometime between March 21, 1843, and March 21, 1844.

When Miller's prediction didn't come to be, Miller changed the date to Oct. 22. When Oct. 23 rolled around, his loyal followers explained it away yet again and went on to form the Seventh-day Adventist movement.
October 22, 1844

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1845 - The refrigerator is invented (John Gorrie, United States)
"John Gorrie was born in 1803 and spent most of his childhood in South Carolina. After receiving a degree in medicine, he moved to Apalachicola, Florida, a port city on the Gulf of Mexico. In addition to practicing medicine, Gorrie studied tropical diseases. Like most physicians of the time, Gorrie incorrectly believed malaria, yellow fever, and other diseases were caused by hot air - a theory that was supported by his observation that 'nature would terminate the fevers by changing the seasons.' He wrote several articles urging people to drain swamps and marshlands, places where disease-carrying mosquitoes thrived. When Gorrie pursued the idea of using refrigeration to cool patients, he quickly discovered ice was expensive and sometimes hard to come by in the South, so he began exploring the potential of making artificial ice. By 1845, he quit practicing medicine to set about engineering an ice-making system. While receiving a US patent for his ice-making machine was a step forward,... Read MORE...

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1845 - March 4 - James K. Polk (1795-1849) becomes 11th President of the United States
When James K. Polk accepted the Democratic Party's nomination for the presidency, he was not very well known. The Whig opposition party played on his obscurity, sniping, "Who is James K. Polk?" An experienced speaker, Polk surprised everyone when he campaigned vigorously and won the presidency on November 5, 1844. He was called a "dark horse" candidate because he was not expected to beat his opponent, Henry Clay of the Whig Party, to become the 11th president of the United States.

Winning by a narrow margin, Polk campaigned on his strong support for westward expansion, a hotly debated issue that was dodged by other candidates. After taking office, Polk acted swiftly to fulfill his campaign promises, as he intended to serve only one term. In four years, he oversaw the addition of Texas, the reestablishment of an independent treasury system, and the acquisition of territory from Mexico. This new land from Mexico eventually became California, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and parts of... Read MORE...

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1846 - April 25 – Mexican–American War: Open conflict begins over border disputes of Texas' boundaries.
The war, stemming from the United States’ annexation of Texas in 1845 and from a dispute over whether Texas ended at the Nueces River (Mexican claim) or the Rio Grande (U.S. claim), resulted in the United States’ acquisition of more than 500,000 square miles (1,300,000 square km) of Mexican territory extending westward from the Rio Grande to the Pacific Ocean.
April 25, 1846
1847 - July 1 – The United States issues its first postage stamps
POST OFFICE STAMPS. Post-office stamps for the convenience of pre-paying postage are to be issued on the 1st of July. The stamp for ten cents will be of the head of Washington, colored black. The five cents' stamp will be colored brown, and will represent the head of Franklin. The law says --

"Any letter or packet, with one or more stamps affixed, equal in amount to the postage properly chargeable thereon, may be mailed and forwarded from any post office as a pre-paid letter or packet: but if the stamps affixed be not adequate to the proper postage, the postmaster receiving the letter will rate it with the amount deficient in addition."
The Sandusky Clarion
Sandusky, Ohio
July 6, 1847
1848 - February 2 - Mexican–American War formally ends with signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, ceding virtually all of what becomes the Southwestern United States to the U.S.
February 2, 1848
1849 - The safety pin is invented (Walter Hunt, United States)
Interesting Story of Its Inventor, Walter Hunt.

Buffalo Commercial.
John R. Chapin, now of Buffalo, gives some interesting reminiscences of Walter Hunt, who, in the opinion of may, including Mr. Chapin, was the real inventor of the sewing machine. "Let me close," he says "with an anecdote of his talent in the line of invention. He came inot my office on Nassau street one day looking quite down-hearted, and to my inquiry, 'What's the matter, Mr. Hunt?' he replied, 'I owe you $15, don't I, Chapin? Well, I've not a cent in the world, and don't know where to get one.' Upon my assurance that it did not matter, he said: 'Yes, but I don't know where to get a meal of victuals.' After walking the floor for a few minutes in a brown study he suddenly exclaimed: 'I have it. I'll be in this afternoon and pay you.' He went to his shop, took a piece of brass wire about eight inches long, sharpened one end, turned a coil in the center and a loop on the other end, bent it over and ... Read MORE...

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1849 - February 28 – Regular steamboat service from the west to the east coast of the United States begins with the arrival of the SS California in San Francisco Bay.
The California leaves New York Harbor on October 6, 1848, rounds Cape Horn at the tip of South America, and arrives at San Francisco, California after the 4 month 21 day journey.
February 28, 1849
1849 - March 4 - Zachary Taylor (1784-1850) becomes 12th President of the United States. He dies in office after 16 months.
During the revival of the slavery controversy, which was to result in the Compromise of 1850, Taylor began to take an increasingly firm stand against appeasing the South; but he died in Washington on July 9, 1850, during the fight over the Compromise.
March 4, 1849

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1849 - March 3 - The United States Congress passes the Gold Coinage Act allowing the minting of gold coins.
The following is the bill which passed the House of Representatives, authorizing the coinage of two important new gold pieces, of one and twenty dollars in value.

SEC. 1. Be it enacted, That it shall be lawful henceforward to make at the mint and its branches twenty dollar gold coins of the weight of five hundred and sixteen grains and gold collar coins of the weight of twenty five grains and eight-tenths, which coins shall be legal tenders of payment according to their nominal values.

SEC. 2. And be it further enacted, That the above mentioned coins shall be made, in all respects, in conformity with the existing laws regulating the coinage at the mints, except that on the reverse of the gold dollar the figure of the eagle shall be omitted.

SEC. 3. And be it further enacted, That in adjusting the weights of gold coins henceforward, the following deviations from the standard weights shall not be exceeded in any of the single pieces; namely, in the double eagle, the ... Read MORE...

1850 - March 19 – American Express is founded by Henry Wells & William Fargo.
CAPITAL $150,000.

The American Express Company, having purchased the several Domestic Express Lines of Wells & Co., Livingston & Fargo and Butterfield, Wasson & Co., will hereafter carry on the express business on all the several lines at the places heretofore run and occupied by said several Express Lines.

The business of said American Express Company at and between New York and Buffalo and intermediate places will be transacted in the name of "Wells, Butterfield & Co." and at and between Buffalo, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis, and intermediate places, west of Buffalo, in the name of "Livingston, Fargo & Co."

WM. A LIVINGSTON.....Cincinnati
WM. G. FARGO.........Buffalo
JAMES McKAY..........Buffalo
JAMES D. WASSON......Albany
HENRY WELLS..........New York

J.W. WETHERELL, Agent for Sandusky.

The Sandusky Register
Sandusky, Ohio
April 12, 1850

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1850 - July 9 - Millard Fillmore (1800-1874) becomes 13th President of the United States
As president, Fillmore associated himself with the pro-Southern Whigs, supporting the Compromise of 1850. Defeated for the Whig nomination in 1852, he ran for president in 1856 as candidate of the American, or Know-Nothing, Party, which sought to unite the country against foreigners in the alleged hope of diverting it from the explosive slavery issue. Fillmore opposed Lincoln during the Civil War.
July 9, 1850

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1851 - June 5 - Uncle Tom's Cabin Appeared in Serial Form
This influential book is often included in lists of "causes of the Civil War" (1861-65). Harriet Beecher Stowe's story first appeared on June 5, 1851, in serial form, a chapter at a time, in a weekly publication called the National Era. It went on to become one of the nation's earliest bestsellers.

Harriet Beecher Stowe cared deeply about human rights. Her family was active in the Underground Railroad, helping slaves escape to freedom in the North. For 18 years she observed a slave-holding community in Kentucky just across the Ohio River from where she lived in Cincinnati. She didn't like what she saw.

Stowe decided to write a fictional story about slavery and sent it to the editor of an anti-slavery weekly. He paid her $300 for the right to publish her story, and on June 5, 1851, the first chapter appeared in print. Over the next 10 months, Uncle Tom's Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, was published in 40 installments. People started to discuss Uncle Tom's Cabin and pass around... Read MORE...

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1851 - November 14 – Herman Melville's novel Moby-Dick; or The Whale is published in the U.S. by Harper & Brothers, New York, after being first published on October 18 in London by Richard Bentley, in 3 volumes as The Whale.
November 14, 1851

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1853 - March 4 - Franklin Pierce (1804-1869) becomes 14th President of the United States
As president, Pierce followed a course of appeasing the South at home and of playing with schemes of territorial expansion abroad. The failure of his foreign and domestic policies prevented his renomination.
March 4, 1853

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1854 - March 20 - Republican Party formed for abolition of slavery.
It began in a little schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin, in 1854. A small group of dedicated abolitionists gathered to fight the expansion of slavery, and they gave birth to a Party dedicated to freedom and equal opportunity.

The name “Republican” was chosen, alluding to Thomas Jefferson’s Democratic-Republican Party and conveying a commitment to the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

The Party was formally organized in July 1854 by thousands of anti-slavery activists at a convention in Jackson, Michigan.
1855 - In Missouri v. Celia, a Slave, a Black woman is declared to be property without a right to defend herself against a master’s act of rape
1857 - March 4 - James Buchanan (1791-1868) becomes 15th President of the United States - the only bachelor to be President.
He was elected president in 1856, defeating John C. Frémont, the Republican candidate, and former President Millard Fillmore of the American Party. The growing crisis over slavery presented Buchanan with problems he lacked the will to tackle. His appeasement of the South alienated the Stephen Douglas wing of the Democratic Party without reducing Southern militancy on slavery issues. While denying the right of secession, Buchanan also denied that the federal government could do anything about it. He supported the administration during the Civil War.
March 4, 1857

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1857 - March 6 – Dred Scott v. Sandford: The Supreme Court of the United States rules that Blacks are not citizens and slaves can not sue for freedom, driving the country further towards the American Civil War.
March 6, 1857

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1857 - April 7 - A late season freeze brought snow to every state in the Union. Even as far south as Houston TX the mercury plunged to 21 degrees.
April 7, 1857
1857 - Advice to Wives
ADVICE TO WIVES - A wife must learn how to form her husband's happiness, in what direction the secret of his comfort lies; she must not cherish his weaknesses by working upon them; she must not rashly run counter to his prejudices; her motto must be, never to irritate. she must study never to draw large upon the small stock of patience in a man's nature, nor to increase his obstinacy by trying to drive him; never if possible to have scenes. I doubt much if a real quarrel, even if made up, does not loosen the bond between man and wife, and sometimes, unless the affections of both are very sincere, lasting. If irritations should occur, a woman must expect to hear from most men a strength and vehemence of language far more that the occasion requires. Mild, as well as stern men, are prone to this exaggeration of language; let not a woman be tempted to say anything sarcastic or violet in retaliation. The bitterest repentence must needs follow if she does. Men frequently forget what they... Read MORE...

1857 - Toilet paper is invented (Joseph Gayetty, United States)
Really a Capital Production!
The celebrity of Gayett's Medicated Paper for the water-closet is rapidly being extended throughout the United States. It is one of the best articles ever put before the public. It obviates the use of chemically-poisoned white paper, and paper stained with pile producing printer's ink. It is as fine and light as bank-note paper, and as tough as stout paper. Nothing of more value and utility was ever before offered to the public. 1000 sheets cost only $1. 500 sheets 50 cents. Each sheet of the genuine contains the name of J. C. Gayetty, water-marked, -- get the wonderful article from any of the druggists, or from the proprietor, No. 41 Ann St., N. Y. It is sent by express from that place to any part of the United States.
The Wheeling Daily Intelligencer
Wheeling, West Virginia
November 30, 1858

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1860 - Civil War - On December 20, 1860, a little over a month after Abraham Lincoln had been elected President, South Carolina seceded from the Union. Six more states followed by the spring of 1861.
December 20, 1860

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1861 - February 8 – American Civil War: The Confederate States of America are formed, comprising the first six break-away States
February 8, 1861
1861 - February 9 - THE MAIL TO BE STOPPED.
The House of Representatives on Wednesday, by a vote of 131 to 26, adopted a bill authorizing the postmaster General to withhold the mails from the seceded States.
The Raleigh Register
Raleigh, North Carolina
February 9, 1861
1861 - March 4 - Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) becomes 16th President of the United States.
Lincoln's inaugural address was stirring. He appealed for the preservation of the Union. To retain his support in the North without further alienating the South, he called for compromise. He promised he would not initiate force to maintain the Union or interfere with slavery in the states in which it already existed. Soon after, Lincoln received word that Fort Sumter, located in Charleston harbor, South Carolina, would have to be resupplied. The situation presented a problem, as tensions between the North and the South were very high. Resupplying the fort might inflame the situation because it was located in a slave-holding state. Yet Lincoln, in his inaugural address, had promised that the Union would not give up control of federal territory, such as Fort Sumter. The fort was resupplied, and Lincoln refused to evacuate it. The Confederates attacked the fort on April 12, 1861. The Civil War had begun, and President Lincoln was thrust into the middle of one of this country's greatest... Read MORE...

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1861 - October 26 – The Pony Express announces its closure.
ATCHISON - Oct. 19. - Orders have to-day been issued by the President of the Pike's Peak Express Company at this place to stop the running of the Pony Express as soon as the California line is completed, which will probably be early next week. It is, therefore, probably that not more than one pony will run.
Daily Nashville Patriot
Nashville, Tennesee
October 26, 1861
1861 - November 6 - Jefferson Davis Elected President of the Confederate States of America
On November 6, 1861, Jefferson Davis was elected president of the Confederate States of America. He ran unopposed and was elected to serve for a six-year term. Davis had already been serving as the temporary president for almost a year.
November 6, 1861

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1862 - February 1 – American Civil War: Julia Ward Howe's Battle Hymn of the Republic is published for the first time in the Atlantic Monthly.
February 1, 1862

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1862 - May 15 – U.S. President Abraham Lincoln signs a bill into law creating the U.S. Bureau of Agriculture (later renamed U.S. Department of Agriculture).
May 15, 1862

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1862 - May 20 – U.S. President Abraham Lincoln signs the Homestead Act into law.
THE HOMESTEAD ACT - Letters are coming to the post offices in Nebraska, by hundreds, in which enquiries are made concerning the prospect of obtaining good quarter sections of land under the Homestead Act. The nearest good lands now available are about an average of eight miles from the river. -- The best lands; those having plenty of timber are along the upper branches of the Nemahas, on Salt Creek and the Blue. There are acres enough of better soil than can elsewhere be found on this continent to give homes to one million and a half of people. Come and take them. - Neb. City News.
Nebraska Advertiser
Brownville, Nebraska
June 19, 1862

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1862 - July 1 - The Bureau of Internal Revenue, the forerunner of the Internal Revenue Service, is established in the United States
U.S. President Abraham Lincoln signs into law the Pacific Railway Acts, authorizing construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad.
July 1, 1862

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1863 - January 1 - Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation, freeing slaves
President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, as the nation approached its third year of bloody civil war. The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free."...

Although the Emancipation Proclamation did not end slavery in the nation, it captured the hearts and imagination of millions of Americans and fundamentally transformed the character of the war. After January 1, 1863, every advance of federal troops expanded the domain of freedom. Moreover, the Proclamation announced the acceptance of black men into the Union Army and Navy, enabling the liberated to become liberators. By the end of the war, almost 200,000 black soldiers and sailors had fought for the Union and freedom...
January 1, 1863

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1863 - October 3 – President Lincoln proclaims a national Thanksgiving day to be celebrated the final Thursday in November in the United States
By the President of the United States,

WASHINGTON, Oct. 3. The year that is drawing toward its close has been filled with the blessings of fruitful fields and healthful skies. To these bounties, which are so constantly enjoyed that we are prone to forget the source from which they come, others have been added, which are of so extraordinary a nature that they cannot fail to penetrate and soften even the heart which is habitually insensible to the ever watchful Providence of Almighty God. In the midst of a civil war of unequalled magnitude and severity, which has sometimes seemed to invite and provoke the aggression of foreign States, peace has been preserved with all nations, order has been maintained, the laws have been respected and obeyed, and harmony has prevailed everywhere, except in the theatre of military conflict, while that theatre has been greatly contracted by the advanced armies and navies of the Union. The needful diversion of... Read MORE...

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1864 - The Income Tax
The Income Tax

There appears to be considerable misunderstanding still existing in the public mind concerning the income tax now due under the United States Revenue Laws. Those unaquacinted with he provisions of the tax bill will find the following brief r sum of interest:

First, the tax of five per centum is only imposed on the excess of income over $600, and is payable on the income received for the year ending December 31, 1863. The tax on income derived from United States Securities is specially restricted to 2 1/ [???] of 1 per centum.

All State and municipal taxes lawfully paid may be deducted from the estimate of the income of the person actually paying the same. It is also provided that the rent of the homestead used or occupied by any person or family, not exceeding $200, may be deducted from the excess of income over $600.

In estimating the income, all forms of indebtedness bearing interest, whether due and paid, or not, if good and collectable, must be included... Read MORE...

1865 - April 15 – Inauguration of Andrew Johnson: President Lincoln dies early this morning from his gunshot wound and Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes the 17th President of the United States.
Johnson became Abraham Lincoln's running mate, despite the fact that he was a Democrat and Lincoln was a Republican. After Lincoln's assassination in April 1865, Johnson went from vice president to president. In foreign affairs, things went fairly smoothly. But at home, Johnson faced a crisis. Trying to reconstruct the country after the Civil War, radical Northern Republicans thought his policies toward the South were not harsh enough. Ill will and deep political disagreements ended with Congress voting to impeach Johnson in February 1868. A few months later, the Senate acquitted Johnson of the impeachment charges by just one vote. He served the remainder of his presidential term, but the brand of impeachment has traveled with his memory.
April 15, 1865

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1865 - May 29 – American Civil War: President of the United States Andrew Johnson issues a proclamation of general amnesty for most citizens of the former Confederacy.
May 29, 1865

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1865 - July 5 - The U.S. Secret Service is founded.
July 5, 1865
1866 - May 16 – The United States Congress approves the minting of a nickel 5-cent coin (nickel), eliminating its predecessor, the half dime.
In the House of Representatives, a few days ago, the following proceedings took place.

Mr. Kasson - The Committee on Coinage, Weights and Measures have instructed me to report House bill No. 397, to authorize the coinage of five cent pieces.

No objection being made, the bill was considered, and was ordered to be engrossed and read a third time.

The bill provides that as soon as practicable there shall be coined at the United States mint a five cent piece, composed of copper and nickel, the proportion of the latter not exceeding 25 per cent, and of the coin not to exceed 60 grains. The bill further provides that from and after the passage of this act no further issues shall be made of the five cent fractional currency, and all such outstanding currency shall be redeemed & withdrawn from circulation, leaving no fractional currency of a less denomination than ten cents...
The Lincoln County Herald
Troy, Missouri
April 27, 1866
1866 - June 13 - The 14th Amendment is passed by Congress (ratified by the states in 1868), saying “Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States
according to their respective members, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. . . .But when the right to vote . . .is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State . . . the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in proportion.” It is the first time “citizens” and “voters” are defined as “male” in the Constitution.
1866 - July 25 – The United States Congress passes legislation authorizing the rank of General of the Army (now called "5-star general"); Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant becomes the first to have this rank.
The President Signs the Bill Reviving the Grade of General - General Grant Nominated - Vice-admiral Farragut Appointed Admiral.

WASHINGTON, July 25. - The President has signed the bill reviving the grade of General in the army of the United States, and this afternoon nominated to the Senate Lieutenant-general Grant for that office, and Vice-admiral Farragut to be Admiral in the Navy under a recent law.
The Cincinnati Enquirer
Cincinnati, Ohio
July 26, 1866

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1868 - Twenty thousand Norwegians, Danes and Swedes are to arrive in this country this spring, whose destination will be chiefly to the West.

St Joseph Herald
Saint Joseph, Michigan
April 18, 1868
1868 - From statistics carefully prepared from authentic sources, and reliable as any other public documents, it has been ascertained that the average cost of strong drink for each man, woman, and child in the United States is twenty dollars.

St Joseph Herald
Saint Joseph, Michigan
April 18, 1868
1868 - The typewriter is invented (Christopher Latham Sholes, United States)
... In 1867 Mr. C. Latham Sholes, a printer and editor; Mr. Samuel W. Soule, a printer, and Mr. Carlos Glidden, a retired merchant, all residents of Milwaukee, inspired by an article of the London Engineering, descriptive of "the prototype" invented by John Pratt, of Centre, Ala., projected the Type-writer. It was completed after six years of the persistent application indispensable to all great enterprises. Practically, the first instrument was made by E. Remington & Sons, in 1878, who are still the sole manufacturers... The Type-writer is progress, but it is a revolution also, or His Majesty the Pen would not have yielded as easily its centuries of autocracy...
National Republican
Washington, DC
December 6, 1884

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1868 - October 28 – Thomas Edison applies for his first patent, the electric vote recorder.
October 28, 1868

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1869 - The New York Sun says: "Four hours of good hard study in the morning is as much as should be required of any child under fourteen years of age, girls especially."

St Joseph Herald
Saint Joseph, Michigan
January 30, 1869
1869 - It is estimated that not one-eighth of the people of the United States attend public worship on Sunday.

St Joseph Herald
Saint Joseph, Michigan
January 30, 1869
1869 - March 4 - Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885) becomes 18th President of the United States
In 1868, as Republican candidate for president, Grant was elected over the Democrat, Horatio Seymour. From the start, Grant showed his unfitness for the office. His cabinet was weak, his domestic policy was confused, and many of his intimate associates were corrupt. The notable achievement in foreign affairs was the settlement of controversies with Great Britain in the Treaty of London (1871), negotiated by his able secretary of state, Hamilton Fish.

Running for reelection in 1872, he defeated Horace Greeley, the Democratic and Liberal Republican candidate. The Panic of 1873 graft scandals close to the presidency created difficulties for his second term.
March 4, 1869

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1869 - A young and pretty girl, a little proud of her good looks, had a quarrel with her lover, who reproached her for caring more for beauty than his love.
To prove to him how much she loved him she broke off her four front teeth, and, thus disfigured, cast herself at his feet. It is, perhaps, unnecessary to state that she lost her lover.
St Joseph Herald
Saint Joseph, Michigan
May 29, 1869
1869 - The total amount of sugar now consumed by all nations may be estimated at 2,500,000 tons. America consumes about 530,000 tons.

St Joseph Herald
Saint Joseph, Michigan
October 30, 1869
1869 - In 1868 there were 2,208 books published in the United States.
107 of them imported in editions. Ninety-one of these were subscription books, and thirteen were books of American genealogy.
St Joseph Herald
Saint Joseph, Michigan
October 30, 1869
1870 - Feb 3 - 15th Amendment receives final ratification, “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”
1870 - Whenever you perceive a horse's inclination to rear, separate your reins and prepare for him.
The instant he is about to rise slacken one hand and bend or twist his head with the other, keeping your hands low. This bending compels him to move a hind leg, and of necessity brings his fore feet down. Instantly twist him completely around two or three times, which will confuse him very much, and completely throw him off his guard. The moment you have finished twisting him round, place his head in the direction you wish him to proceed, apply the spurs, and he will not fail to go forward.
St Joseph Herald
Saint Joseph, Michigan
April 9, 1870
1870 - Whole-grained Hominy
In a course towel tie up two or three quarts of hard-wood ashes; place in a large iron pot half full of water, set it over the fire, and put into it two quarts of corn. Boil slowly until the outer covering of the kernel, and all that part called the chit, will come off easily. Then skim out the corn and wash in four or five waters. Pour the water off through a sieve or colander, so as not to waste the grains. Wash the pot, replace the corn, put on fresh water, let it boil a little and then change the water again. It will require four or five hours to boil enough. Salt to your taste and hour before it is done.
St Joseph Herald
Saint Joseph, Michigan
April 9, 1870
1870 - June 22 - The U.S. Congress creates the United States Department of Justice.
June 22, 1870
1870 - June 26 - Christmas becomes a Federal holiday in the United States
It was still illegal in some states.
1871 - Washing Recipe.
A correspondent furnishes the following to the Western Rural: "For two tubs of clothes, take one half tea-cup of coal-oil, and mix it thoroughly with enough soap to form a suds. Separate the white from the colored clothes, and put them in separate tubs to soak over night. In the morning wring out and make another suds, and wash them through it. Then boil and rise. The clothes will be very white."
St Joseph Herald
Saint Joseph, Michigan
March 11, 1871
1871 - To Fry Sweetbreads.
Let them soak a few minutes in water. Take them out, and wipe them perfectly dry. Do not cut them or split them. Put on pepper and salt. Let the pan get hot, with a very little butter or perfectly sweet lard in it. Now lay in the sweetbread. If in danger of burning, remove from the front of stove. When cooked nearly through, turn them, and let them cook as long again. They must be well cooked.
St Joseph Herald
Saint Joseph, Michigan
March 11, 1871
1871 - To Clean Black Silk and Ribbons
Take an equal quantity of alcohol, molasses and soft-soap. Mix them thoroughly together. Spread the ribbons or silk on the table, and rub some of the mixture well in, using a small, clean cloth. When rubbed enough, rinse the silk in two or three changes of clean warm water. The soft-soap must be made of wood ashes. When rinsed, fold the silk in a towel for a few minutes, and then iron with a flat-iron not too hot. If these directions are carried out, the silk will look nearly as good as new.
St Joseph Herald
Saint Joseph, Michigan
March 11, 1871
1872 - May 4 - The magazine Popular Science is first published in the U.S.
May 4, 1872
1873 - April 15 - Bradwell v. Illinois, 83 U.S. 130 (1872): The U.S. Supreme Court rules that a state has the right to exclude a married woman (Myra Colby Bradwell) from practicing law.
1874 - November 25 – The United States Greenback Party is established as a political party, made primarily of farmers financially hurt by the Panic of 1873.
November 25, 1874
1875 - March 1 - Civil Rights Act of 1875
Enacted on March 1, 1875, the Civil Rights Act affirmed the “equality of all men before the law” and prohibited racial discrimination in public places and facilities such as restaurants and public transportation.
1875 - March 29 - Minor v Happersett, 88 U.S. 162 (1875): The U.S. Supreme Court declares that despite the privileges and immunities clause, a state can prohibit a woman from voting.
Minor v. Happersett, U.S. Supreme Court case in which the court ruled unanimously in 1874 that the right of suffrage was not protected by the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution...

In its decision the Supreme Court declared that the privileges and immunities of citizenship are not defined by the U.S. Constitution; thus, individual states’ enfranchisement of male citizens only was not necessarily a violation of the citizenship rights of women. This finding effectively put an end to attempts to win voting rights for women through court decree. Subsequent efforts in the woman suffrage movement in the United States focused on the revision of voting laws of individual states and on the ratification of a separate amendment to the Constitution.
1876 - March 7 – Alexander Graham Bell is granted a United States patent for an invention he calls the telephone (patent 174,466).
Professor Bell tried his telephone on the telegraph line between Boston and Salem the other day, he remaining in Boston. Conversation was carried on with the operator at Salem without the slightest difficulty, even the voices of the speakers being easily recognized. Whispering was found to be perfectly audible, but was unintelligible. After a time, instead of grounding the wire at Salem, it was connected with North Conway, a distance of 143 miles from Boston, thus leaving Salem as a way station. After this change had been made there was a slight diminution in the loudness of the tones, but no difficulty was experienced in carrying on conversation.
Democrat and Chronicle
Rochester, New York
December 2, 1876

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1877 - March 4 - Rutherford B. Hayes (1822-1893) becomes 19th President of the United States
On the night of the 1876 presidential election, Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes went to bed early. He assumed that he had lost the election to his opponent, Democrat Samuel J. Tilden. Tilden did win the popular vote that night, but the Republicans challenged the validity of the electoral votes from three states.

Congress appointed a special Electoral Commission to make a decision on the matter. The commission was made up of five senators, five members of the House of Representatives, and five Supreme Court justices. In the end, the commission determined that Hayes was elected president by a margin of one electoral vote.

Hayes' first duty was to take the oath of office, which he did secretly in the Red Room of the White House, becoming the first president to be sworn in there.
March 4, 1877

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1877 - Thomas Edison announces his invention of the phonograph, a machine that can record sound, considered Edison's first great invention. Edison demonstrates the device for the first time on November 29.
November 21, 1877
Thomas Edison announces his "talking machine" invention (phonograph), the 1st machine to play and record sound.

The Phonograph.
The Scientific American contains the first announcement of what may be the most wonderful invention of the day - Edison's Phonograph. The Sun says that nothing could be more incredible than the likelihood of once more hearing the voice of the dead, yet the invention of the new instrument is said to render this possible. Hereafter it is true that the voice is stilled, but whoever has spoken or whoever may speak into the mouth-piece of the Phonograph and whose words are recorded by it has the assurance that his speech may be produced audibly in his own tones long after he himself has turned to dust. A strip of indented paper travels through the little machine and the sounds of the voice are magnified by it and positively sentenced and hence is heard as plainly as if it were presented speech.

Cambridge Jeffersonian
Cambridge, Ohio
November 15, 1877

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1879 - Through special Congressional legislation, Belva Lockwood becomes first woman admitted to try a case before the Supreme Court.

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1879 - Incandescent light bulb is invented (Thomas Alva Edison, United States)
Edison still claims that his electric light is a complete success, and says he can now furnish it at one-third the cost of gas, but he thinks that he can make the difference in price much greater, and hence the delay. In San Francisco, a company has been formed and is now ready to furnish light in any part of the city, while the directors claim they can light all the streets of the city at a saving of from $150,000 to $200,000 a year to taxpayers. The public has heard enough about what Edison and others promise to do in the way of cheap light, and is now anxiously waiting for the performance.
Reading Times
Reading, Pennsylvania
April 18, 1879

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1881 - March 4 - James A. Garfield (1831–1881) becomes President of the United States
In 1880, Garfield was elected to the Senate, but instead became the presidential candidate on the 36th ballot as a result of a deadlock in the Republican convention. In the election, he defeated Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock, the Democratic candidate. Garfield's administration was barely under way when he was shot by Charles J. Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker, in Washington on July 2, 1881. He died in Elberon, N.J., on Sept. 19.
March 4, 1881

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1881 - The American Red Cross is established by Clara Barton.
At a meeting this evening, largely attended by prominent citizens and those actively interested in beneficent organizations, a constitution was adopted as a basis of an organization to be known as the Red Cross Society. Judge Wm. Lawrence presided. Mrs. Clara Barton, prominently identified with sanitary and hospital work during the civil war, and conspicuous during the Franco-Prussian war as one of the Red Cross representatives, read a paper showing the scope and efficiency of red cross societies in countries where the order is recognized by government and accorded the powers and privileges which are asked for it in the United States. Several of the Cabinet officers and many of the highest army officers are very warm supporters of the cause, notable Secretaries Blaine, Windom and Lincoln, Generals Sherman, Grant, Sheridan and others.
Lawrence Daily Journal
Lawrence, Kansas
May 22, 1881

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1881 - September 19 - Chester A. Arthur (1829–1886) becomes President of the United States
In 1880 Arthur was nominated for vice president in the hope of conciliating the followers of Grant and the powerful New York machine. As president upon Garfield's death, Arthur, stepping out of his familiar role as spoilsman, backed civil service reform, reorganized the cabinet, and prosecuted political associates accused of post office graft. Losing machine support and failing to gain the reformers, he was not nominated for a full term in 1884.
September 19, 1881

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1882 - The Standard Oil Trust (monopoly) is secretly created in the United States to control multiple corporations set up by John D. Rockefeller and his associates.
January 2, 1882

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1883 - October 15 – The Supreme Court of the United States declares part of the Civil Rights Act of 1875 to be unconstitutional, allowing individuals and corporations to discriminate based on race.
October 15, 1883
1883 - November 18 – U.S. and Canadian railroads institute 5 standard continental time zones, ending the confusion of thousands of local times.

Exactly at noon on Sunday, as has been announced, the new system of uniform time will be put into effect by the leading railroad companies; and, instead of fifty different standards, there will be four corresponding to the four meridians adopted by the Chicago convention of railroad men. There is, indeed, a fifth standard meridian adopted, but, as it passes near St. Johns, New Brunswick, we are not concerned with it in the United States.

The five meridians are computed west from Greenwich, and calculations from the meridian of Washington will be abolished. The longitudinal belts between the meridians are fifteen degrees wide, and each is divided by a meridian passing through the middle and standard time within the limits of each belt is to be reckoned from noon on the central meridian. The four central meridians in the United States are one hour apart in time, and four hours cover all the differences in time. By the new arrangement each zone will have the same... Read MORE...

1884 - May 1 – The eight-hour workday is first proclaimed by the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions in the United States. This date, called May Day or Labour Day, becomes a holiday recognized in almost every industrialized country.
May 1, 1884
1884 - The first gravity roller coaster amusement ride (LeMarcus A. Thompson, United States)
"1884: The first gravity roller coaster designed and built specifically as an amusement ride opens at Coney Island, New York. It is a commercial success and leads to the building of roller coasters all over the world.

LaMarcus Adna Thompson’s Coney Island coaster, which, for a nickel ($1.15 in today’s money), hurtled passengers down an undulating 600-foot-long track at speeds up to a blistering 6 mph, would hardly be recognizable to riders of modern-day roller coasters.

Passengers faced sideways, for one thing, and the track was not laid out in a continuous loop. Like the switchback gravity railway used by Pennsylvania coal miners that inspired it, the Coney Island coaster ran point-to-point, with nothing but gravity to provide the propulsion.

The ride began atop a 50-foot-high platform, and when it reached the other end, passengers had to disembark so the cars could be switched over to the return track for the ride back to the starting... Read MORE...

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1884 - August 10 – A severe earthquake, magnitude 5.5, (intensity VII) occurs off the northeast Atlantic coast of the United States. The area affected extends from central Virginia to southern Maine, and west as far as Cleveland.
August 10, 1884
1884 - Photographic film is invented (George Eastman, United States)

A certificate was filed yesterday in the county clerk's office showing that the capital stock of the Eastman Dry Plate and Film company $200,000, has been fully paid up. The trustees are Henry A. Strong, Edwin O. Sage, J. H. Kent, George Eastman and William H. Walker. The company is preparing to introduce its new discovery, paper dry plates.
Democrat and Chronicle
Rochester, New York
December 20, 1884

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1885 - March 4 - Grover Cleveland (1837-1908) becomes 22nd President of the United States
In 1884 Grover Cleveland won the Democratic nomination for president. The campaign contrasted Cleveland's spotless public career with the uncertain record of James G. Blaine, the Republican candidate, and Cleveland received enough Mugwump (independent Republican) support to win.

As president, Cleveland pushed civil service reform, opposed the pension grab and attacked the high tariff rates. While in the White House, he married Frances Folsom in 1886. Renominated in 1888, Cleveland was defeated by Benjamin Harrison, polling more popular but fewer electoral votes. In 1892, he was elected over Harrison. When the Panic of 1893 burst upon the country, Cleveland's attempts to solve it by sound-money measures alienated the free-silver wing of the party, while his tariff policy alienated the protectionists. In 1894, he sent troops to break the Pullman strike. In foreign affairs, his firmness caused Great Britain to back down in the Venezuela border dispute.
March 4, 1885

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1886 - "Lean beefsteak and hot water for seventeen weeks" is the latest diet that such of the world's fat people who wish to get thin are trying.

St Joseph Herald
Saint Joseph, Michigan
March 6, 1886
1886 - LIBERTY'S LIGHT. The Great Torch of the Goddess We Love. Imposing Ceremonies Attending the Unveiling of the Bartholdi Statue on Liberty Island.
The Colossal Gift of a Sister Republic Gracefully Accepted by an Appreciative People.

The Metropolis of the Nation Overwhelmed by Throngs of Visitors.

A Mammoth Parade Reviewed by the President and His Cabinet and Our French Guests.

The Grand Naval Procession - Ceremonies at the Statue - Liberty Unveiled - Grand Pyrotechnic Display

NEW YORK, Oct. 28., - The rain, which fell almost continuously for thirty-six hours, did not cease until about daylight this morning. The sky did not clear, however, and the thousands of anxious sightseers who began to pour into the streets at an early hour met a damp, foggy atmosphere, which threatened a renewal of rain at any moment. Between eight and nine o'clock all thoroughfares showed signs of unusual activity. All trains were crowded to their utmost capacity with people trying to view the grand procession.

French and American flags are flying from house tops and windows in every direction and a general holiday appearance is presented... Read MORE...

1888 - September 4 – George Eastman registers the trademark Kodak, and receives a patent for his camera which uses roll film.
Philadelphia, Friday, October 26, 1888.
The Kodak Camera is the latest photographic novelty; 100 pictures without a stop. Anybody can do it. To-morrow (Saturday) from 2 to 5 P.M. we shall show how easy it is for a novice to take photographs. Bring your friends. Ask at Optical Goods counter. Juniper street entrance.
The Times
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
October 26, 1888

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1888 - The Supreme Court of the United States decide on the 29th that the license tax imposed by any State upon commercial travelers from other States is unconstitutional.

St Joseph Herald
Saint Joseph, Michigan
November 3, 1888
1888 - It was stated on the 31st ult. that the large number of Chinese who were arriving at British Columbia ports from China were not destined to remain in Canada, but were taking this means of smuggling themselves into the United States.

St Joseph Herald
Saint Joseph, Michigan
November 3, 1888
1889 - March 4 - Benjamin Harrison (1833-1901) becomes 23rd President of the United States
In 1888, Benjamin Harrison received the Republican nomination for president on the eighth ballot. Though behind on the popular vote, he won over Grover Cleveland in the electoral college by 233 to 168.

As president, Harrison failed to please either the bosses or the reform element in the party. In foreign affairs he backed Secretary of State Blaine, whose policy foreshadowed later American imperialism. Harrison was renominated in 1892 but lost to Cleveland.
March 4, 1889

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1890 - June 1 – The United States Census Bureau begins using Herman Hollerith's tabulating machine to tabulate census returns using punched card input,
a landmark in the history of computing hardware. Hollerith's company eventually becomes IBM.
June 1, 1890

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1891 - The motion picture camera is invented (Thomas Alva Edison, William K.L. Dickson, United States)
It is to Reproduce a Picture of What Passes Before the Mechanical Eye - With the Phonograph the Invention Will Serve to Take the Opera Into the Parlor - A Rapid-Transit Road Under Broadway - General New York News.
NEW YORK, May 27. - (Special.) - From the laboratory of the Wizard of Menlo Park there is coming an invention which out-Edisons Edison. It is the marriage of the phonograph to the camera - the union in one instrument of sound and sight. With it the opera can be carried into the parlor and the artists cannot only be heard but can also be seen. The popular preacher, the eminent public speaker, with it all can be brought to the home.

The new wonder will be called the "kinetograph," a strange sounding title to the ear today, but destined perhaps soon to become as familiar as locomotive or telephone, both strange words in their infancy. Mr. Edison has been at work on this newest conception of his genius for... Read MORE...

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1891 - The zipper is invented (Whitcomb L. Judson, United States)
"...the inventor of the first zipper, Whitcomb L. Judson, did his experimentation right here in the Windy City and in 1891 invented a device called the zipper.

Actually, the first zipper was a very crude invention, conceived by this portly fella called Judson who found he could no longer bend over to tie his shoes. What he came up with was a device that held together some crude hooks and eyes - a very awkward contraption.

Whitcomb's idea lay idle for many years while other more enterprising meddlers tinkered to make the device work better..."
The Daily Herald
Chicago, Illiniois
May 19, 1975

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1893 - March 4 - Grover Cleveland (1837–1908) becomes President of the United States

March 4, 1893

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1893 - July 1 – U.S. President Grover Cleveland is operated on in secret.
The published stories concerning the health of President Cleveland seem to lack some of the essential element of consistency, and they will not excite general credence until stronger confirmatory testimony has been furnished. The American people are just now deeply concerned in the preservation of Mr. Cleveland and the full vigor of physical and mental health, and the subject is one the country does not want to see lightly treated.
Reading Times
Reading, Pennsylvania
August 31, 1893

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1893 - The United States Supreme Court legally declares the tomato to be a vegetable.
The question whether a tomato is a fruit or vegetable has finally been decided by the Supreme Court of the United States. Several years ago some imported tomatoes came through New York City, when the Collector classified them as vegetables and collected duty accordingly. The importers disputed this point and claimed tomatoes to be a fruit and entitled to come in free. The matter was taken into court, which decided in favor of the Collector's claim that the tomato is a vegetable.
The Charlotte Democrat
Charlotte, North Carolina
July 14, 1893
1896 - May 18 – Plessy v. Ferguson: The U.S. Supreme Court introduces the "separate but equal" doctrine and upholds racial segregation.
May 18, 1896
1896 - December 25 - John Philip Sousa composes his magnum opus, the Stars and Stripes Forever.
December 25, 1896

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1897 - March 4 - William McKinley (1843-1901) becomes 25th President of the United States
With the support of Mark Hanna, a shrewd Cleveland businessman interested in safeguarding tariff protection, William McKinley became governor of Ohio in 1892 and Republican presidential candidate in 1896. The business community, alarmed by the progressivism of William Jennings Bryan, the Democratic candidate, spent considerable money to assure McKinley's victory.

The chief event of McKinley's administration was the war with Spain, which resulted in the United States' acquisition of the Philippines and other islands. With imperialism an issue, McKinley defeated Bryan again in 1900. On Sept. 6, 1901, he was shot at Buffalo, N.Y., by Leon F. Czolgosz, an anarchist, and he died there eight days later.
March 4, 1897

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1897 - A Vast Sum Worse Than Wasted.
A temperance orator says that $858,000,000 was expended for beer alone in the United States last year. Assuming that the population of the United States was 70,000,000 in 1896, this would be more than $12 per capita for every man, woman, and child in the United States, and we all know that there are lots of children in the United States who didn't have any beer at all last year.
The Abbeville Press and Banner
Abbeville, South Carolina
May 19, 1897
1898 - April 5 – Annie Oakley promotes the service of women in combat situations with the United States military.
On this day, she writes a letter to President McKinley "offering the government the services of a company of 50 'lady sharpshooters' who would provide their own arms and ammunition should war break out with Spain."
April 5, 1898

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1898 - April 25 – Spanish-American War: The United States declares war on Spain; the U.S. Congress announces that a state of war has existed since April 21 (later backdating this one more day to April 20).
...On April 11, 1898, President William McKinley asked Congress for authorization to end the fighting in Cuba between the rebels and Spanish forces, and to establish a “stable government” that would “maintain order” and ensure the “peace and tranquility and the security” of Cuban and U.S. citizens on the island. On April 20, the U.S. Congress passed a joint resolution that acknowledged Cuban independence, demanded that the Spanish government give up control of the island, foreswore any intention on the part of the United States to annex Cuba, and authorized McKinley to use whatever military measures he deemed necessary to guarantee Cuba’s independence.

The Spanish government rejected the U.S. ultimatum and immediately severed diplomatic relations with the United States. McKinley responded by implementing a naval blockade of Cuba on April 22 and issued a call for 125,000 military volunteers the following day. That same day, Spain declared war on the United States, and the U.S.... Read MORE...

1898 - December 10 – The Treaty of Paris is signed, ending the Spanish-American War.
On December 10, the Treaty of Paris officially ended the Spanish-American War. The once-proud Spanish empire was virtually dissolved as the United States took over much of Spain's overseas holdings. Puerto Rico and Guam were ceded to the United States, the Philippines were bought for $20 million, and Cuba became a U.S. protectorate. Philippine insurgents who fought against Spanish rule during the war immediately turned their guns against the new occupiers, and 10 times more U.S. troops died suppressing the Philippines than in defeating Spain.
December 10, 1898

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1899 - September 18 – Scott Joplin's Maple Leaf Rag is registered for copyright as ragtime music enjoys mainstream popularity in the United States.
September 18, 1899
1900 - Population of United States (US proper only) - 76,212,200

1900 - By now, every state has passed legislation modeled after New York’s Married Women’s Property Act (1848), granting married women some control over their property and earnings.
1900 - March 15 – The Gold Standard Act is ratified, placing the United States currency on the gold standard.
The Gold Standard Act a Law.
Washington, March 15. - The gold standard act passed by congress, defining and fixing the standard of value, maintaining the parity of all forms of money issued or coined by the United States, and refunding the public debt, became a law yesterday through the signature of President McKinley.
Lebanon Daily News
Lebanon, Pennsylvania
March 15, 1900
1900 - June 1 – American temperance agitator Carrie Nation begins her crusade to demolish saloons.
Mrs. Carrie Nation, of this City, Invaded Six of Them last Thursday. Damage Estimated $350.

The peace, tranquility and prosperity of the Kiowa "Soda Fountains" were violently disturbed last Thursday, and, as usual in such cases, excitement ran high several hours. Mrs. Carrie Nation, of this city, President of the W.C.T.U. of the county, became convinced last Thursday that it was her duty to go to Kiowa and "smash up" the saloons, and acting on that conviction she hitched up and drove thither without breathing a word to anybody.

She went into the saloons armed with brick bats and was ably reinforced after she gained entrance, by billiard balls, cues, etc. etc. Mrs. Nation wasn't at all particular in choosing her weapons. Anything that was capable of doing the smashing act in reaching distance was called into service. The most damage was done in Bill Lewis' place, where a fine large mirror was ruined besides considerable liquor destroyed and bottles... Read MORE...

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December 1900 - What May Happen in the Next Hundred Years
In the future there will be no more city blocks. People will live in the suburbs. They will ride to the city on public transportation, which will cost a penny. People will be healthier than today. They will live to fifty. Most people will be physically fit. "A man or woman unable to walk ten miles at a stretch will be regarded as a weakling."

Cities will be free from the noises of street cars. All traffic will be either below ground or high above the ground. Trains will be fast moving and "to go from New York to San Francisco will take a day and a night by fast express."

"There will be air-ships, but they will not successfully compete with surface cars and water vessels for passenger or freight traffic. They will be maintained as deadly war-vessels by all military nations. Some will transport men and goods. Others will be used by scientists making obeservations at great heights above the earth."

"Photographs will be telegraphed from any distance... Man will see around the... Read MORE...

1901 - February 25 – U.S. Steel is incorporated by industrialist J. P. Morgan as the first billion-dollar corporation.
February 25, 1901

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1901 - September 14 - Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) becomes 26th President of the United States
Assuming the presidency of the assassinated McKinley in 1901, Roosevelt embarked on a wide-ranging program of government reform and conservation of natural resources. He ordered antitrust suits against several large corporations, threatened to intervene in the anthracite coal strike of 1902, which prompted the operators to accept arbitration, and, in general, championed the rights of the “little man” and fought the “malefactors of great wealth.” He was also responsible for such progressive legislation as the Elkins Act of 1903, which outlawed freight rebates by railroads; the bill establishing the Department of Commerce and Labor; the Hepburn Act, which gave the I.C.C. greater control over the railroads; the Meat Inspection Act; and the Pure Food and Drug Act.

In foreign affairs, Roosevelt pursued a strong policy, permitting the instigation of a revolt in Panama to dispose of Colombian objections to the Panama Canal and helping to maintain the balance of power in the East by... Read MORE...

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1902 - May 20 – Cuba gains independence from the United States.
to take Place on that Day - The American Evacuation to Be Complete Except Military Forces in Coast Defenses - All Military and Civil Offices to be Then Turned Over to the Cubans - The Cuban Congress to be Called in Extra Session May 10th.

Washington, March 25. - May 20, 1902 is the new date fixed for turning over the island of Cuba to its people. The change of date was made, if not at the suggestion, then with full approval of President-elect Palma and his advisors, Senors Tamaya and Quesada, who were with him at the war department today. This date should be a memorable one in Cuban history, for it will not only mark the acquisition of full independence, but will be the Cuban inauguration day, it having been determined that President Palma shall be inaugurated on the same day that American control of the island ceases.

All but the smallest details of the change in Cuba have been... Read MORE...

1903 - The first engine-powered airplane is invented (Wilbur & Orville Wright, United States)
Two Americans Solve Great Problem of Aerial Navigation With a Flying Machine Which They Invent and Build.
NORFOLK, Va. - The problem of aerial flight without the use of a balloon has been solved by Wilbur and Orville Wright of Dayton, O.

At Kitty Hawk, on the coast of North Carolina, they successfully navigated a flying machine of their own invention for three miles in the teeth of a twenty-one-mile gale and, picking their point of descent, easily landed their machine there. During the trial, Wilbur Wright occupied the operator's seat and steered the apparatus.

For three years the Wrights have experimented at Kitty Hawk with their invention. They chose that point because of its isolation and the absence of publicity.
Evening Sentinel
Santa Cruz, California
December 19, 1903

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1904 - June 28 - U.S. begins construction of Panama Canal
February 23 – For $10 million, the United States gains control of the Panama Canal Zone...

June 28 - A small U.S. workforce arrives in Panama to survey, plan, and continue the excavation begun by the French. They are led by Chief Engineer John Findley Wallace.

Chief Medical Officer Colonel William C. Gorgas arrives in Panama with a team of seven men. He immediately focuses on the staggering death rate the French had come across during their time on the isthmus, looking for possible causes. His studies on the local population will show that over 70% of the local Panamanian population has malaria. American Experience
June 28, 1904
1905 - Whipping Post for Wife Beaters
President Roosevelt's suggestion, in his recent Congressional message, that "some form of corporal punishment" is desirable in dealing with wife-beaters and other "offenders whose criminality takes the shape of brutality and cruelty toward the weak," has led to efforts to establish a whipping-post in the District of Columbia, and to some discussion in the press of the country at large. The Chicago "Evening Post" favors the proposal on the ground that "no man who beats his wife is anything short of a brute and a coward, and for such the infliction of physical pain seems to be the only punishment that tends to put a check on his brutality." The same paper says further:

"The law that merely fines or imprisons the wife-beater most often gives the severest punishment to innocent victims of the man's brutality. And it seldom punishes the brute as he should be punished. From this viewpoint it it is not surprising to find those usually arrayed against the administration of harsh and... Read MORE...

1906 - August 22 – The first Victor Victrola, a phonographic record player, is manufactured.
Splendid Talking Machine.
The Victor Victrola, a splendid new talking machine, is being exhibited by Wharton Brothers. This is the costliest and by far the most nearly perfect ever seen here. It has been on the market for only about one month. It has no horn, as is usually the case, but it has the appearance of a mahogany cabinet.
Daily Industrial News
Greensboro, North Carolina
November 10, 1906
1907-1908 - The electric washing machine is invented (Alva J. Fisher, United States)
"Dateline 1907 - Chicago Cubs sweep World Series, defeating Detroit Tigers in four games. A washing machine operated by electricity rather than by hand has been marketed by the Hurley Machine Company. The Hurley uses a small motor to spin a drum that holds clothes, water and soap. Its main competition is the Maytag Pastime. The Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory were formally merged and admitted as the 45th state of the union. A light bulb with tungsten filament is being marketed by General Electric, which says it gives better light. A light, portable vacuum cleaner is being marketed by the Hoover Suction-Sweeper Company..."

The Wabaunsee County Signal-Enterprise, Alma, Wabaunsee County, Kansas, Thursday, February 8, 2007

"The first washing machine powered by electricity was invented by Alva J. Fisher in 1908. Fisher worked for the Hurley Washing Machine in Chicago and named his creation The Thor.

Previous to the invention of the electric-powered washing machine, James... Read MORE...

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1907 - March 2 - Expatriation Act - Any American woman who marries a foreign national, forfeits her citizenship.
... That any American woman who marries a foreigner shall take the nationality of her husband. At the termination of the marital relation she may resume her American citizenship, if abroad, by registering as an American citizen within one year with a consul of the United States, or by returning to reside in the United States, or, if residing in the United States at the termination of the marital relation, by continuing to reside therein...
1907 - Stock market tumble
Distrust of the government's attitude toward the corporations, a threatened monetary stringency in all the leading markets of the world and the financial embarrassment of the Pope Manufacturing company combined to demoralize the stock market in New York. Prices melted in sensational fashion ad the average level of declines was below that reached in the memorable Norther Pacific panic of May, 1901. Stocks were sold lower than ever before in their history.
The Clinton Mirror
Clinton, Iowa
August 24, 1907
1908 - February 18 – Japanese emigration to the United States is forbidden under terms of the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907.
February 18, 1908
1908 - February 24 - Muller v State of Oregon, 208 U.S. 412 (1908): The U.S. Supreme Court upholds Oregon’s 10-hour workday for women.
1908 - First Model-T car is produced by Henry Ford (United States)
The Ford Motor Company from now until July will manufacture in quantities only the four-cylinder Rumble Seat Runabout, Model "S," and the six-cylinder Runabout Model K. By cutting down the variety of models their factory can put its best energy toward bringing out the Model "T" Touring Car and Taxicab on schedule time. The Model "T" four-cylinder Touring Car will be ready for delivery in July, and the Brooklyn distributers, Bishop, McCormick & Bishop, Inc. of 20 Halsey street, expect to break all sales records during that and the following months. The Model "T" sells for $850, the Taxicab for $950.
The Brooklyn Daily Eagle
Brooklyn, New York
June 7, 1908

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1909 - March 4 - William Howard Taft (1857-1930) becomes 27th President of the United States
When Teddy Roosevelt prepared to retire his presidency, this popular and influential politician promoted Taft as the next Republican president. Taft was elected president in 1908, serving one term.
March 4, 1909

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1910 - Comet Halley is visible from Earth. It won't be seen again until 1986.
May 18, 1910 Will Be the Biggest Day in Astronomical History, When for the First Time the Coming Celestial Stranger's Eccentric Orbit Will Cause Its Meteoric Appendage to Fan the Surface of the Globe. All Scientists Admit There Will Be a Collision, and Camille Fammarion Says There May Be Disaster, but the Astronomers at Yerkes Observatory Tell The Sunday Tribune Readers That No Serious Harm Can Come to the Inhabitants of This Planet.

MAY 18, 1910.
Look it up on your calendar and when found, make a note of this date. On that day this whole world is going to do something that it probably never did before and probably will never do again. It is going to give the lie in most emphatic and convincing fashion to the adage that there is nothing new under the sun. On May 18, 1910, this planet earth is going to pass through the 15,000,000 miles long tail of Halley's justly celebrated and popular comet at the same time the comet ... Read MORE...

American Girl is Queen - 1910
New York, Aug. 18 - 'If Venus de Milo should appear on earth today, she couldn't hold a candle to our American girls!'

So exclaimed George Clinton Batcheller, corset maker, after studying professionally and innocently, the forms of foreign women in his annual tour.

'The American girl is tall, and yet not too tall; slender, and yet well-developed. She has beautifully sloping shoulders and a long waist. She has hips, though she is trying to conceal them at present. She has beautifully long, exquisitely modeled arms. Her feet are slender, if not tiny.'

'Her features are regular and clear cut. She has a round, yet strong chin. Her profile is exquisite.'

'American women have more style than French women, because the American woman will adopt the prevailing mode to suit her individuality.'

'Our girls with black hair and blue eyes, or red hair and brown eyes, form a welcome change from the invariable blonde which one sees in Germany, or the invariable brunet which one sees in... Read MORE...

1912 - April 15 - Titanic sinks in the North Atlantic
At 2:20 a.m. on April 15, 1912, the British ocean liner Titanic sinks into the North Atlantic Ocean about 400 miles south of Newfoundland, Canada. The massive ship, which carried 2,200 passengers and crew, had struck an iceberg two and half hours before.

The Titanic Sank With 1,350 Aboard
Most of the Carpathis's Rescued Passengers are Women and Children Who Went First.
Col. John Jacob Astor, Benjamin Guggenheim, G.D. Widener, Isadore Straus, William F. Stead and Major Archibald Butts, Aide to President are Among the Famous Men Who are Reported Among the Missing. The Story of the Disaster.

The appalling magnitude of the wreck of the giant liner Titanic has been but little mitigated by the fragmentary information which has filtered in today. The rescuing steamer Carpathia has 868 survivors aboard, according to the latest news received at the offices of the White Star line. But except for this, favorable details are insignificant compared with the supreme... Read MORE...

1913 - December 1 - The assembly line is invented (Henry Ford, United States)
"...Henry Ford installs the first moving assembly line for the mass production of an entire automobile. His innovation reduced the time it took to build a car from more than 12 hours to two hours and 30 minutes...

Ford had been trying to increase his factories’ productivity for years. The workers who built his Model N cars (the Model T’s predecessor) arranged the parts in a row on the floor, put the under-construction auto on skids and dragged it down the line as they worked. Later, the streamlining process grew more sophisticated. Ford broke the Model T’s assembly into 84 discrete steps, for example, and trained each of his workers to do just one. He also hired motion-study expert Frederick Taylor to make those jobs even more efficient. Meanwhile, he built machines that could stamp out parts automatically (and much more quickly than even the fastest human worker could).

The most significant piece of Ford’s efficiency crusade was the assembly line. Inspired by the... Read MORE...

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1913 - March 4 - Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) becomes 28th President of the United States
Wilson became the 28th president of the United States, serving two consecutive terms in the White House, from 1913 to 1921. During his time in office, Wilson faced many challenges at home and abroad, and face them he did.

The issue of women's suffrage confronted Wilson right from the start. The National Women's Party organized a suffrage parade in Washington, D.C., the day before Wilson's inauguration. Drawing away the crowds from inaugural events, leaders hoped to put pressure on the new president to pay attention to women's rights. It is said that when Wilson arrived in town he found the streets empty, instead of full with welcoming crowds, and was told that everyone was on Pennsylvania Avenue watching the parade. Before the end of his second term in 1920, Wilson and Congress approved the 19th Amendment, giving women the right to vote.

In foreign policy, Wilson faced a greater challenge than any president since Abraham Lincoln. Deciding whether or not to involve the U.S. in... Read MORE...

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1913 - October 31 – The Lincoln Highway, the first automobile road across the United States, is dedicated.
New Route Across Continent Will Be Inaugurated With Many Celebrations in Towns Touched by It.
New York, Oct. 31. - Dedication of the Lincoln Highway, the new direct roadway through 13 states from coast to coast, will be made by local celebrations in all towns and villages along the route tonight. The Highway has been completed and will open to all with no toll charges. Motorists, particularly, will find it convenient, not only in transcontinental travel, but for interstate trips.

Roads adopted by the highway will have their local names dropped and "Lincoln Highway," substituted. Markers will individualize the highway. These markers are to be a strip of red three inches wide, white, 15 inches wide, and a blue strip three inches wide, with the letter "L" in blue on the white section. The words "Lincoln Highway" in small blue letters will also be upon the marker.

The first marker to go into position on the highway was placed at Clinton, Ia., on... Read MORE...

1913 - December 23 – The Federal Reserve System is created as the central banking system of the United States by Woodrow Wilson's signature of the Federal Reserve Act.
December 23, 1913

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1913 - The bra is invented (Mary Phelps Jacob, United States)
"... Mary Phelps Jacob, a young New York socialite who became exasperated with the antiquated corsets after finding it impossible to prevent the support rods from poking out from underneath the fabric of her evening gown. Determined to create a more comfortable, less cumbersome alternative, Jacob took two silk handkerchiefs and, with help from her maid, sewed them together using some pink ribbon and cord.

The resulting undergarment was soft and light, and it conformed to the wearer’s anatomy far more naturally than the traditional corsets. Soon requests poured in from family, friends and even strangers, all of whom wanted to purchase the new accessory. Recognizing the immense potential of her invention, Jacob quickly patented the "Backless Brassiere" and began selling the units under the name "Caresse Crosby."

Jacob's design was the first brassiere to enjoy widespread use, but its popularity did not peak until World War I, when the U.S. government requested that women stop... Read MORE...

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1914 - Woodrow Wilson signs a Mother's Day proclamation.
President Wilson Acts on Joint Resolution of Congress

Washington, May 9. - President Wilson today approved a joint resolution setting apart tomorrow as Mothers' day and issued a proclamation commanding that all flags be displayed in observance of the occasion. The proclamation recited the resolution and its purpose and continued:

"Whereas, by the said joint resolution it is made the duty of the president to request the observance of the second Sunday in May as provided for in the said joint resolution:

"Now, therefore, I, Woodrow Wilson, president of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the said joint resolution, do hereby direct the government officials to display the United States flag on all government buildings and do invite the people of the United States to display the flag at their homes or other suitable places on the second Sunday in May as a public expression of our love and... Read MORE...

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1915 - The Rocky Mountain National Park is established by an act of the United States Congress.

Congress has just set aside 700 square miles of mountainous region near Denver which will hereafter be known as the Rocky Mountain National park. It include Estes park, which recently has been visited annually by 30,000 tourists, according to an estimate made by R. B. Marshall, chief of the U.S. geological survey.

"There is no predominant commanding natural feature in Estes park such as is to be found in the Crater lake, the Yellowstone, or along the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, but the region as a whole is as beautiful as any to be found in the world," declares Marshall.
The Bismarck Tribune
Bismarck, North Dakota
January 24, 1915
1915 - January 25 - First United States coast-to-coast long-distance telephone call,
facilitated by a newly invented vacuum tube amplifier, ceremonially inaugurated by Alexander Graham Bell in New York City and his former assistant Thomas A. Watson, in San Francisco, California. (Wikipedia)

A.G. Bell, Original Inventor, Talks from New York to San Francisco
Thomas A. Watson, His Early Assistant, at the Other End of the Long Line

NEW YORK, January 25., - Late yesterday afternoon in an office within sight of the Statue of Liberty, Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, the inventor of the telephone, talked over a line, the route of which is 3,400 miles long to Thomas A. Watson in San Francisco: This is the first time in history that the voice of a man has leaped in a single bound from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and yesterday's conversation between Dr. Bell and Mr. Watson repeats one of the most thrilling incidents of scientific history.

Mr. Watson was Bell's assistant during the long,...

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1916 - May 20 – The Saturday Evening Post publishes its first cover with a Norman Rockwell painting (Boy with Baby Carriage).
May 20, 1916

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1916 - On May 30, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson issued a presidential proclamation establishing a national Flag Day on June 14.
May 30, 1916

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1917 - March 2 – The enactment of the Jones Act grants Puerto Ricans United States citizenship.
Citizenship for Porto Ricans.
From the New York Herald.

With the passage of the new government bill by the Senate yesterday all doubts of the future status of Puerto Ricans are removed. American citizenship is conferred upon them and with it there is provided a much greater amount of self-government than they ever have enjoyed. The enactment of this legislation represents another fore-ward step in the process of making the Carribean an American lake.
The Scranton Republican
Scranton, Pennsylvania
February 22, 1917
1917 - April 6 – WWI: The United States declares war on Germany.
U.S. At War

Washington, April 6 - America is at war. Amidst the most dramatic scenes ever witnessed in congress, the House early today passed the resolution which formally declared Germany as an enemy and launched the United States in the fight for democracy of the world. The vote on the resolution was 373 to 50.

For the first time in history a woman voted on the question of war. With a sob and a protest of her love of country, she voted "no."

The only things left now to make the state of war formal are the signatures of Vice President Marshall and President Wilson to the war resolution.

Marshall will sign the document at noon in the senate. Then it will be sent by messenger to the White House - or Wilson himself will go to the capitol to seal with his name the tremendous step taken by this government.

The first blows will be struck at Germany. Secret orders covering precautionary steps within and without... Read MORE...

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1917 - June 5 – WWI: Conscription begins in the United States.
But He Must Register on Tuesday or Go to Jail

Eagle Bureau, 901 Colorado Building.

Washington, June 2 - As a betting proposition, the odds are 20 to 1 against the chance of the average American getting into the selective draft army of 500,000 men, to be assembled as the first unit under the new military act. If you are anxious to wear a uniform, the surest way is to go and volunteer in the Regular Army, the National Guard, the Marine Corps or the Navy; because if you wait to be drafted, you may stay at home.

The reason why the American citizen of military age is a 20-to-1 shot just now is due to the fact that the United States has tremendous resources of many power, which it proposes to tap very gradually. There are 10,000,000 men of military age - that is, men who are 21 years old and who have not reached the age of 31. Out of this 10,000,000 the Government proposes to select 500,000 to go into... Read MORE...

1918 - January 8 - New York v. Sanger, 222 NY 192, 118 N.E. 637 (Court of Appeals 1917), National Archives, Records of the U.S. Supreme Court, RG 267 (MSDME-CDS C 15:298).
Margaret Sanger wins her suit in New York to allow doctors to advise their married patients about birth control for health purposes.

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1918 - March 19 – The United States Congress establishes time zones and approves daylight saving time (DST goes into effect on March 31).
Getting Used to the "Daylight Saving" Time.

"Daylight saving" is now a law, if not a fact, and as both the government and railroads are to adopt the new system, and most factories, the public will generally follow suit. This is not a mandatory law, but advisory, but a law of Congress was desired in this case for the same reason that it is desired in the case of prohibition. To avoid confusion and conflicting systems "daylight saving" must be national in scope.

In some localities the new arrangement will be more inconvenient than in others. Where the latitude corresponds fairly closely to the new time established in the time-zone system there will be little inconvenience. In Topeka we are near the western edge of a time-zone which extends from Pittsburg or Buffalo to Dodge City. We are therefore always, by the clock, considerably behind the actual time by the sun, and putting us ahead a full hour will make the time here in summer nearer what it would normally be, or was before... Read MORE...

1919 - February 26 – Grand Canyon National Park: An act of the United States Congress establishes most of the Grand Canyon as a United States National Park.

The senate bill to make the Grand Canyon a national park was passed last Monday and sent to conference. In the area set aside are 996 square miles of public land, now parts of two national forests and a game refuge.

The proposal has been before congress for 33 years.
Mohave County Miner
Kingman, Arizona
January 25, 1919
1919 - June 4 – Women's rights: The United States Congress approves the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which would guarantee suffrage to women, and sends it to the U.S. states for ratification.
Congress Puts Votes for Women Up to States for Ratification - Long Fight

WASHINGTON, D.C., June 5. - Action by Congress on equal suffrage - subject of a fight of 40 years duration - ended late yesterday, in adoption by the Senate by a vote of 56 to 25 of the historic Susan B. Anthony constitutional amendment resolution.

The proposed amendment, adopted by the House by a vote of 304 to 89, May 21, as the first act of the new Congress, now goes to the states ratification by legislatures of three-fourths of which is required for its incorporation in the Federal constitution.

The roll call today showed two votes more than the necessary two-thirds for the resolution, which was drafted by Susan B. Anthony in 1875 and introduced by Senator Sargent of California in 1878. Counting paired and absent members, the Senate actually stood 66 to 30 for the measure.

Senator Knox of Pennsylvania voted against the amendment. Senator Penrose,... Read MORE...

1919 - October 28 – Prohibition in the United States is authorized:
The United States Congress passes the Volstead Act over President Woodrow Wilson's veto. (Wikipedia)

The President's message again makes clear his desire that Congress repeal "war-time" prohibition, but this Congress has refused to do. The situation, therefore, reverts to the status of the past few months. In the face of the unwillingness to Congress to repeal the legislation Attorney-General Palmer has held that the ban cannot be lifted until the peace treaty is ratified, and the President, in a peace proclamation, declares the war to be at an end.

The Cincinnati Enquirer
Cincinnati, Ohio
October 28, 1919

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1919 - November 9 – Felix the Cat appears in Feline Follies, marking the first cartoon character to become popular.
November 9, 1919
1920 - January 17 - Prohibition goes into effect on January 17, 1920, under the provisions of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution.
'Cans' and 'Can'ts' of Amendment
Dry Amendment 'Cans' and 'Can'ts'

Here are some of the things you can do under a prohibition amendment and title 2 of the Volstead enforcement act, effective at 12:01 a.m., Jan. 17:

YOU CAN possess and drink intoxicating liquor in your own home or the home of a friend where you are a bona fide guest.

YOU CAN buy intoxicating liquor on doctor's prescription - if the transaction is a bona fide medical one. One person limited to a pint every ten days.

YOU CAN consider as your home any rooms, hotel, apartment house, boarding house or club where you live permanently, but not transiently. If you own more than one private dwelling, you can drink and keep liquor in each.

YOU CAN keep liquor in any storage room or locker of your home, including a club. If the storage room or locker is for the exclusive use of yourself, family and bona fide friends.

YOU CAN get a permit to move your liquor when you move your place of residence.

YOU CAN...

1920 - August 18 - The Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified. It declares: “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.”
1921 - March 4 - Warren G. Harding (1865-1923) becomes 29th President of the United States
When the 1920 convention was deadlocked between Leonard Wood and Frank O. Lowden, Harding became the dark-horse nominee on his solemn affirmation that there was no reason in his past that he should not be. Straddling the League question, Harding was easily elected over James M. Cox, his Democratic opponent. His cabinet contained some able men, but also some manifestly unfit for public office. Harding's own intimates were mediocre when they were not corrupt. The impending disclosure of the Teapot Dome scandal in the Interior Department and illegal practices in the Justice Department and Veterans' Bureau, as well as political setbacks, profoundly worried him. On his return from Alaska in 1923, he died unexpectedly in San Francisco on Aug. 2.
March 4, 1921

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1922 - June 14 – U.S. President Warren G. Harding makes his first speech on the radio.
President Warren G. Harding, while addressing a crowd at the dedication of a memorial site for the composer of the "Star Spangled Banner," Francis Scott Key, becomes the first president to have his voice transmitted by radio. The broadcast heralded a revolutionary shift in how presidents addressed the American public. It was not until three years later, however, that a president would deliver a radio-specific address. That honor went to President Calvin Coolidge.
June 14, 1922

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1923 to 1927 - Television is invented (Vladimir Kosma Zworykin (Russia), Philo Taylor Farnsworth (United States))
...Zworykin had a patent, but Farnsworth had a picture

Zworykin and his television
Zworykin is usually credited as being the father of modern television. This was because the patent for the heart of the TV, the electron scanning tube, was first applied for by Zworykin in 1923, under the name of an iconoscope. The iconoscope was an electronic image scanner - essentially a primitive television camera.

Farnsworth was the first of the two inventors to successfully demonstrate the transmission of television signals, which he did on September 7, 1927, using a scanning tube of his own design.
Farnsworth received a patent for his electron scanning tube in 1930.

Zworykin was not able to duplicate Farnsworth's achievements until 1934 and his patent for a scanning tube was not issued until 1938.

The truth of the matter is this, that while Zworykin applied for the patent for his iconoscope in 1923, the invention was not functional until some years later and all earlier efforts... Read MORE...

1923 - March 2 – Time Magazine hits newsstands in the United States for the first time.
March 2, 1923
1923 - April 4 – Warner Bros. film studio is formally incorporated in the United States as Warner Brothers Pictures, Inc.
April 4, 1923
1923 - August 2 - Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933) becomes 30th President of the United States
After Warren Harding's death Vice-President Coolidge became President and handled the Washington scandals with care and finally managed to save the Republican Party from public blame for the widespread corruption.

In 1924, Coolidge was elected without difficulty, defeating the Democrat, John W. Davis, and Robert M. La Follette running on the Progressive ticket. His second term, like his first, was characterized by a general satisfaction with the existing economic order. He stated that he did not choose to run in 1928.
August 2, 1923

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1924 - June 2 - Congress Granted Citizenship to All Native Americans Born in the U.S.
Citizenship Given Indians
- Long Beach Press -

Every native-born Indian in this country is made a citizen of the United States by act of President Coolidge in signing the Indian Citizenship measure. About 125,000 Indians are given citizenship by this latest act of Congress. About 200,000 Indians already have been made citizens.

This is merited recognition of the claims the American Indian has upon the paleface "powers that be." The Indian of today has yielded to the educational accommodations insisted upon by the white man. Many educated Indians have demonstrated their abilities and usefulness. They deserve citizenship. Furthermore, as a matter of sentiment, Indians should be enfranchised. They are the aborigines of this country - there forebears were. The white man wrested this continent from the Indian. While enmity between the two races was long and bitter, yet, in these latter days feeling between them has improved.

The animosities of generations agone have passed. The...

1924 - The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, (43 Stat. 253, enacted June 2, 1924) was an Act of the United States Congress that granted US citizenship to the indigenous peoples of the United States.
1924 - December 30 – Astronomer Edwin Hubble announces that Andromeda, previously believed to be a nebula, is actually another galaxy, and that the Milky Way is only one of many such galaxies in the universe
December 30, 1924

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1926 - November 11 – U.S. Route 66 is established.
U.S. Route 66, also known as the Will Rogers Highway, the Main Street of America or the Mother Road, was one of the original highways within the U.S. Highway System. US 66 was established on November 11, 1926, with road signs erected the following year. The highway, which became one of the most famous roads in the United States, originally ran from Chicago, Illinois, through Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona before ending at Santa Monica, California, covering a total of 2,448 miles.
November 11, 1926

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1927 - April 7 – Bell Telephone Co. transmits an image of Herbert Hoover (then the Secretary of Commerce), which becomes the first successful long distance demonstration of television
Hoover Observed in Gotham As He Talks in Capital
That's Not all - Radio Program is Also Heard While the Performers Are Seen
Years of Research Culminate Thursday
Images of Speakers and Actors Are Thrown on Both Large and Small Screens

NEW YORK, April 7. - (AP) - Television, a scientists' dream ever since the telephone was invented half a century ago, became an actuality today when Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover spoke over the telephone in Washington and was seen as well as heard in the Bell Telephone laboratories here.

Not only were Secretary Hoover and a score of others in Washington seen in New York by telephone wire, but a radio program was broadcast over the laboratories' experiment station 3XN at Whippany, N.J., and moving likenesses of the performers as well as the sound of their voices were put on air and transferred to a screen in this city.

Years of Research
Officials of the American Telephone and Telegraph company...

1927 - May 20–21 – Charles Lindbergh makes the first solo, nonstop transatlantic airplane flight, carried out from New York City to Paris, France, in his single-engined aircraft, the Spirit of St. Louis.
DETROIT, Mich., May 21. (AP) - "That's all that matters." In these words, Mrs. Evangeline Lodge Lindbergh, mother of Captain Charles Lindbergh, expressed her relief when informed that her intrepid son had arrived safely at Le Bourget flying field, France, after an epochal flight from New York.

Mrs. Lindbergh, who had been silently waiting since the take-off from New York yesterday morning, for the word of her son's safe arrival, allowed herself a few tears of joy, and then said:

"I am deeply thankful for his safety and appreciative of the true sympathy expressed by so many people."

Asked whether she had been confident of his success, she countered with:

"How could anyone be confident?" Then she added: "I knew if it were possible for any pilot, given a good machine, to make the flight, that he would."

Times Signal
Zanesville, Ohio
May 22, 1927

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1927 - September 18 – The Columbia Phonographic Broadcasting System (later known as CBS) is formed and goes on the air with 47 radio stations.
September 18, 1927
1927 - The Jazz Singer debuts as first talking film
Al Jolson's Film Debut in "Jazz Singer" Oct. 6

Warner Brothers will present Al Jolson in "The Jazz Singer" at the Warner Theater a week from tonight. The long-awaited presentation of the picturization of Samson Raphaelson's comedy drama, which continues to be a potent attraction on the legitimate stage, will be made a gala event by the Warners and will be attended by Jolson and a number of motion picture celebrities, some of whom are coming from Hollywood to be present at the premiere.

The presentation of "The Jazz Singer" takes on importance for several reasons, two of which stand out prominently. One is that it will mark Al Jolson's debut as a screen star and the other is that "The Jazz Singer," through the instrumentality of Vitaphone, will show the greatest step forward in the presentation of motion pictures that the screen has known. It will be the first time that Vitaphone will have been brought into play in carrying out the story of a picture, inasmuch as through it all... Read MORE...

1928 - Sliced bread (bread slicing machine) is invented by Otto Frederick Rohwedder (United States)
"...The first automatically sliced commercial loaves were produced on July 6, 1928, in Chillicothe, Missouri, using a machine invented by Otto Rohwedder, an Iowa-born, Missouri-based jeweler. Rohwedder’s quest to make sliced bread a reality was not without its challenges. A 1917 fire destroyed his prototype and blueprints, and he also faced skepticism from bakers, who thought factory-sliced loaves would quickly go stale or fall apart. Nevertheless, in 1928, Rohwedder’s rebuilt “power-driven, multi-bladed” bread slicer was put into service at his friend Frank Bench’s Chillicothe Baking Company.

Rohwedder’s newfangled contraption was greeted with an enthusiastic report in the July 6, 1928, edition of the Chillicothe Constitution-Tribune, which noted that while some people might find sliced bread “startling,” the typical housewife could expect “a thrill of pleasure when she first sees a loaf of this bread with each slice the exact counterpart of its fellows. So neat and precise are... Read MORE...

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1929 - February 26 – The Grand Teton National Park is established by the United States Congress.
February 26, 1929
1929 - March 4 - Herbert Hoover (1874-1964) becomes 31st President of the United States
In the election of 1928, Hoover overwhelmed Gov. Alfred E. Smith of New York, the Democratic candidate and the first Roman Catholic to run for the presidency. He soon faced the worst depression in the nation's history, but his attacks upon it were hampered by his devotion to the theory that the forces that brought the crisis would soon bring the revival and then by his belief that there were too many areas in which the federal government had no power to act. In a succession of vetoes, he struck down measures proposing a national employment system or national relief, he reduced income tax rates, and only at the end of his term did he yield to popular pressure and set up agencies such as the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to make emergency loans to assist business.

After his 1932 defeat, Hoover returned to private business.
March 4, 1929

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1930 - February 18 - Pluto is discovered
Pluto was discovered at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, by astronomer Clyde W. Tombaugh.

The existence of an unknown ninth planet was first proposed by Percival Lowell, who theorized that wobbles in the orbits of Uranus and Neptune were caused by the gravitational pull of an unknown planetary body. Lowell calculated the approximate location of the hypothesized ninth planet and searched for more than a decade without success. However, in 1929, using the calculations of Powell and W.H. Pickering as a guide, the search for Pluto was resumed at the Lowell Observatory in Arizona. On February 18, 1930, Tombaugh discovered the tiny, distant planet by use of a new astronomic technique of photographic plates combined with a blink microscope. His finding was confirmed by several other astronomers, and on March 13, 1930 - the anniversary of Lowell's birth and of William Hershel's discovery of Uranus - the discovery of Pluto was publicly announced.
February 18, 1930

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1930 - April 6 - Hostess Twinkies first sold.
Twinkies were invented in Schiller Park, Illinois on April 6, 1930, by James Alexander Dewar, a baker for the Continental Baking Company. Realizing that several machines used to make cream-filled strawberry shortcake sat idle when strawberries were out of season, Dewar conceived a snack cake filled with banana cream, which he dubbed the Twinkie. Ritchy Koph said he came up with the name when he saw a billboard in St. Louis for "Twinkle Toe Shoes". During World War II, bananas were rationed and the company was forced to switch to vanilla cream. This change proved popular, and banana-cream Twinkies were not widely re-introduced. The original flavor was occasionally found in limited-time promotions, but the company used vanilla cream for most Twinkies.
April 6, 1930

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1930 - April 19 – Warner Bros. in the United States release their first cartoon series called Looney Tunes which runs until 1969.
April 19, 1930

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1930 - July 7 - Construction begins on the Hoover Dam (originally known as the Boulder Dam)
On July 7, 1930, construction began on the Hoover Dam. President Herbert Hoover was deeply devoted to protecting the environment, particularly focusing on pollution-free water, flood control, and fisheries. After a disastrous Mississippi River flood in 1927, Hoover recommitted to bettering American infrastructure to prevent another catastrophe.
July 7, 1930
1930 - Scotch tape is invented (Richard Drew (3M), United States)
"...Back in the ’20s, Scotch was a synonym for 'cheap.' Richard Drew, a 23-year-old research assistant at Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing, was trying to create a sticky-but-not-too-sticky adhesive tape for auto painters to use on two-tone paint jobs. When he erred on the not-too-sticky side, one of the car-painters asked, 'Why so Scotch with the adhesive?' and a brand name was born.

An engineering-school dropout who supported himself by playing the banjo for Twin Cities dance bands, Drew’s first job at 3M was delivering sandpaper samples to auto shops. There he heard so much cursing about paint jobs ruined by overly sticky tape that he set about trying to make a better one. In 1925, after two years of experimentation, he hit upon the winning formula — a blend of cabinetmaker’s glue and glycerin. Scotch brand masking tape was born..."
The New York Times
New York, New York
July 20, 2014

Read more about Richard Gurley DREW
1931 - The paper towel is invented (Arthur Scott, United States)
"Arthur Scott, head of [Scott Paper Company], had big trouble. An entire railroad car full of paper, unloaded at his plant, wasn't good for anything because the paper had been rolled too thick for toilet tissue, its intended purpose. Was he going to send the whole load back?

Meanwhile, Scott heard about a certain teacher in the city school system who had developed a novel idea to help fight colds in school. She gave every runny nosed student a small piece of soft paper to use. That way the roller towel in the toilets would not become contaminated with germs. Scott decided he would try to sell the carload of paper. He perforated the thick paper into small towel-size sheets and sold them as disposable paper towels. Later he renamed the product Sani-Towel and sold them to hotels , restaurants, and railroad stations for use in public washrooms.

In 1931, Scott introduced the first paper towel for the kitchen and created a whole new grocery category. He made perforated rolls of... Read MORE...

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1931 - March 3 – The Star-Spangled Banner is adopted as the United States National anthem.
WASHINGTON - March 3 - (AP) - The Senate today passed and sent to the House a bill to make "The Star Spangled Banner" the national anthem. The bill was approved without debate after Senator Tydings, Democrat, Maryland, had persuaded senators to withdraw objections which had previously prevented its passage.
Miami Daily News-Record
Miami, Florida
March 3, 1931
1932 - January 12 – Hattie W. Caraway becomes the first woman elected to the United States Senate.
Hattie Wyatt Caraway served for 14 years in the U.S. Senate and established a number of "firsts," including her 1932 feat of winning election to the upper chamber of Congress in her own right. Drawing principally from the power of the widow's mandate and the personal relationships she cultivated with a wide cross–section of her constituency, "Silent Hattie" was a faithful, if staid, supporter of New Deal reforms, which aided her largely agricultural state...
January 12, 1932

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1932 - June 6 – The Revenue Act of 1932 is enacted, creating the first gas tax in the United States at 1 cent per US gallon (0.26 ¢/L) sold.
June 6, 1932
1933 - March 4 - Franklin D. Roosevelt (1822-1945) becomes 32nd President of the United States - The only President to be elected four times.
In 1932, Roosevelt received the Democratic nomination for president and immediately launched a campaign that brought new spirit to a weary and discouraged nation. He defeated Hoover by a wide margin. His first term was characterized by an unfolding of the New Deal program, with greater benefits for labor, the farmers, and the unemployed, and the progressive estrangement of most of the business community.

At an early stage, Roosevelt became aware of the menace to world peace posed by totalitarian fascism, and from 1937 on he tried to focus public attention on the trend of events in Europe and Asia. As a result, he was widely denounced as a warmonger. He was reelected in 1936 over Gov. Alfred M. Landon of Kansas by the overwhelming electoral margin of 523 to 8, and the gathering international crisis prompted him to run for an unprecedented third term in 1940. He defeated Wendell L. Willkie.

Roosevelt's program to bring maximum aid to Britain and, after June 1941, to Russia was... Read MORE...

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1933 - March, The Great Depression: President Franklin D. Roosevelt declares a "Bank holiday", closing all United States banks and freezing all financial transactions.
Bank Holiday Causes Flood of Freak News
Church Calls Moratorium; Movies on Credit; Lucky San Pedro
(By United Press)
NEW YORK, March 3 - Mrs. Martha Laughran, Brooklyn boarding house keeper, became nervous over the banking situation and today visited two banks to withdraw her savings.

When she left the second bank the white pocketbook under her arm contained $10,180.

On Forty-eighth street a man jostled her, snatched the pocketbook from her and fled. He escaped in an automobile with another man.

HARRISBURG, Pa. - A moratorium on collections has been instituted by St. Andrew's Episcopal church in order to avoid embarrassing persons unable to contribute.

Some members have been staying away from services, the vestry announced, because they were unable to put money in the collection plate.

FOLSOM PRISON, Cal. - Peter Farrington was happy today over the three-day banking holiday proclaimed by Governor James Rolph, Jr.

Farrington, under sentence of death for killing a...

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1933 - April 5 - President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt declares a national emergency and issues Executive Order 6102, making it illegal for U.S. citizens to own substantial amounts of monetary gold or bullion.
Issues A New Call For Gold
Roosevelt Orders Return to Federal Reserve Banks of All Amounts over $100 Held by Individuals.
Treasury to Issue licenses Permitting Use of Gold in Necessary Transactions.

Washington, April 5 (AP) - President Roosevelt today ordered the return of all gold over $100 held by individuals to the federal reserve system before May 1.

In the same executive order, the President authorized the secretary of the treasury to issue licenses permitting the use of gold in necessary domestic and foreign trade transactions. For violation of the order the President decreed a maximum fine of $10,000 and imprisonment of 10 years or both.

The order was issued to get such gold as is still in hoarding and to ease the national embargo to permit legitimate transactions under federal license.

The following exceptions are made:

"Such amounts of gold as may be required for legitimate and customary use in industry, profession or art within a... Read MORE...

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1933 - April 19 – The United States officially goes off the gold standard.
U.S. Off the Gold Standard
First Time in Half Century

United States' Action in Leaving Gold Standard Felt Over the World
(By The Associated Press).

The first official departure of the United State from the gold standard in more than fifty years was felt today throughout the world.

London. - Britain's reaction was puzzlement and extreme anxiety. The dollar value dropped heavily, at one time it was $3,90 to the pound. The British government rejected the theory that the United States took the step to provide itself with a bludgeon for the MacDonald-Roosevelt negotiations.

Paris. - Stocks jumped upward and the dollar closed on the Bourse at 22.45 francs, the lowest in more than seven years.

Berlin. - A high financial authority said that in the long run present fluctuations could not touch the dollar value, for the United States is the world's creditor. The dollar dropped.

Rome. - Large groups of American tourists called at banks and travel agencies seeking advice. The... Read MORE...

1933 - May 27 - New Deal: The Federal Securities Act is signed into law, requiring the registration of securities with the Federal Trade Commission.
May 27, 1933
1933 - November 8 – New Deal: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt unveils the Civil Works Administration, an organization designed to create jobs for more than 4 million of the unemployed.
November 8, 1933

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1933 - December 5 – The 21st Amendment to the United States Constitution is passed, repealing Prohibition.
Obey Rum Law, F.D.R. Urges
WASHINGTON, Dec. 5. (AP) - President Roosevelt late today signed a proclamation declaring the prohibition amendment had been repealed.

In the proclamation, the president called upon all citizens to co-operate with the government in efforts to restore "greater respect for law and order" by confining purchases of alcoholic beverages to dealers or agencies licensed by the state or federal governments.

He asked the wholehearted co-operation of all citizens to the end that the return of "individual freedom" should not be accompanied "by the repugnant conditions that obtained prior to the adoption of the Eighteenth amendment and those that have existed since its adoption." He said failure to do this honestly and courageously would be "a living reproach to us all."

"I ask that no state shall by law or otherwise authorize the return of the saloon either in its old form in some modern guise.

"The policy of the government will be to see to it that the... Read MORE...

1934 - The metal beverage can is invented (American Can Co., United States)
The American Can Company created a Coin Bank made from a metal beverage can and sold it at the 1934 Chicago Century of Progress Worlds Fair.

Canned beer made its debut January 24, 1935. Fairport’s (NY) former American Can Company is part of beer can history. American Can made the first beer can for Krueger Brewing in Newark, N.J.
1935 - Dust Bowl: The great dust storm in the United States hits eastern New Mexico and Colorado, and western Oklahoma the hardest.

By Robert Geiger
(Associated Press Staff Writer.)
GUYON, Okla., April 15. - (AP.) - Three little words - achingly familiar on a western farmer's tongue - rule life today in the dust bowl! of the continent ---.

If it rains...

Ask any farmer, any merchant, any banker what the outlook is, and you hear them - if it rains...

If it rains... some farmers will get a wheat crop.
If it rains... fresh row crops may flourish.
If it rains... pasture and range for livestock may be stored.
If it rains... fields quickly lifted into wind-resisting clods may stop the dust.
If it rains... it always has!

The next three weeks will tell the story.

Black and saffron clouds of dust, spectacular, menacing, intensely irritating to man and beast alike, choking, blowing out tender crops, and lasting without mercy for days, have darkened everything but hope and a sense of humor in the dust sector of the... Read MORE...

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1935 - August 14 – United States President Franklin Roosevelt signs the Social Security Act into law.
Roosevelt Sees New Steps To Social Security For Nation
WASHINGTON, Aug. 15. (AP). - President Roosevelt, embarking the government on the New Deal's vast social security program, forsees further social and economic adjustments to come.

When he signed the Security bill into law yesterday, amid formal ceremony, he said it was a "cornerstone in a structure which is being built but is by no means complete."

The bill, which the President said would apply to 30,000,000 persons, provides for contributory old age pensions., Federal-state pensions for aged needy, a Federal-State unemployment insurance system, special fare for dependent children and mothers. It contains a huge tax program to raise the funds.

Legislators and high officials surrounded the President in the cabinet room as he affixed his signature. He spoke into sound cameras recording the event. A secretary told newsmen that the President used "about 30 pens" to sign the bill, so that numerous requests for souvenirs could ... Read MORE...

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1935 - November 5 – Parker Brothers releases the board game Monopoly in the United States.
November 5, 1935
1936 - May 12 – The Santa Fe railroad in the United States inaugurates the all-Pullman Super Chief passenger train between Chicago, Illinois and Los Angeles, California.

Limited Begins 39-Hour Dash to Los Angeles From Chicago On Trip Tonight

Operating on a schedule of 39 hours and 45 minutes, the Santa Fe's new Super Chief, powered with the Diesel locomotive, will leave Chicago tonight on its first run to the coast, arriving in San Bernadino at 7:30 a.m. Thursday.

Effective Sunday, the Chief, drawn by steam locomotives, went on a 50 hour and 25 minute schedule for the Los Angeles to Chicago run.

The Chief, for years the fastest train between Los Angeles and Chicago, has been covering the 2,225 miles eastbound in 55 hours. The new schedule cuts four hours and 35 minutes off the run to Chicago, and nine hours and 45 minutes to New York, according to James B. Duffy, assistant passenger traffic manager.

A triple birthday party will mark the departure of the Super Chief from Chicago tonight. The occasion will not only mark the birth of a new train which will make railroad history in... Read MORE...

1936 - May 30 – Margaret Mitchell's novel Gone with the Wind is first published.
May 30, 1936

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1936 - August 14 - 1936 Summer Olympics (Berlin): The United States men's national basketball team wins the first Olympic basketball tournament in the final game over Canada, 19–8.
August 14, 1936
1936 - November 23 – The first edition of Life Magazine is published.
November 23, 1936
1936 - United States v. One Package of Japanese Pessaries, 13 F. Supp.334 (E.D.N.Y 1936) aff’d 86 F 2d 737 (2nd Cir. 1936), won judicial approval of medicinal use of birth control.
1937 - July 2 - Amelia Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan disappear after taking off from New Guinea during Earhart's attempt to become the first woman to fly around the world.
First Attempt at Hazardous Trip Halted by Accident
First Plan to Fly Westward Changed to Eastward Itinerary

WASHINGTON, July 2 (AP) - Amelia Earhart, the first woman ever to be presented withe the gold medal of the National Geographic Society, lifted her Lockheed Electra monoplane off a run-way at Miami, Fla., June 1, on the first leg of her projected flight around the world.

The flight, she had said, was being made "just for fun..."

Accompanying her as navigator was Capt. Fred Noonan...

Reading Times
Reading, Pennsylvania
July 3, 1937

Overshoots Tiny Island on Daring Pacific Hop
Gas Supply Gives Out, Aviatrix and Noonan Forced Down Near Howland Island
HONOLULU (AP) - Search for Amelia Earhart and her navigator was begun Friday by the coast guard cutter Itasca, only vessel within several hundred miles of tiny Howland Island where the aviatrix was long overdue on a... Read MORE...

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1937 - July 5 - The canned precooked meat product Spam is introduced by the Hormel company in the United States
July 5, 1937
1937 - December 12 - Mae West makes a risque guest appearance on NBC's Chase and Sanborn Hour, which eventually results in her being banned from radio.
Their "Adam and Eve" Rankles
It was innocent fun in the script, and innocuous enough for N.B.C. officials in the final rehearsals, but the actual broadcast of "Adam and Eve," as done last Sunday by Miss West (particularly) and Don Ameche, Sunday, drew shouts of protest from all over the continent.

Mae As Eve Rouses Flood of Protests
Script, Rehearsals Harmless, But Actress "Pepped Up" Inflections On Air, and Sponsors Promise "Never Again"

NEW YORK, Dec. 17. - Ever since the Mae West-Charlie McCarthy frolic Sunday night, N.B.C. has been flooded with protests.

Headquarters in the R.C.A. building here were bombarded with telegrams, mail, phone calls. Each day the volume of kicks from all over the country increased. Women's clubs passed angry resolutions, sent copies to N.B.C.

The broadcasting company explains the situation thus: The script was inoffensive. The trouble was caused by the sexy implications Miss West read into the lines.

Miss West, say the broadcasters,...

1938 - January 3 – The March of Dimes is established by Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
"Franklin Delano Roosevelt, an adult victim of polio, founds the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, which he later renamed the March of Dimes Foundation, on this day in 1938. A predominantly childhood disease in the early 20th century, polio wreaked havoc among American children every summer. The virus, which affects the central nervous system, flourished in contaminated food and water and was easily transmitted. Those who survived the disease usually suffered from debilitating paralysis into their adult lives. In 1921, at the relatively advanced age of 39, Roosevelt contracted polio and lost the use of his legs. With the help of the media, his Secret Service and careful event planning, Roosevelt managed to keep his disease out of the public eye, yet his personal experience inspired in him an empathy with the handicapped and prompted him to the found the March of Dimes.

In 1926, Roosevelt started the non-profit Georgia Warm Springs Foundation on the site of the springs he ... Read MORE...

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1938 - February 4 - Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the first cel-animated feature in motion picture history, is released in the United States following a premiere the previous year.
February 4, 1938

Read more about Walter Elias DISNEY photo of ancestor
1938 - October 24 - The minimum wage is established by law in the United States.
The Fair Labor Standards Act establishes minimum wage without regard to sex.
October 24, 1938
1938 - October 27 - Du Pont announces a name for its new synthetic yarn: "nylon".
The invention of nylon in 1938 ushered in a textile revolution for consumers and the military alike, ultimately helping the Allies win World War II...

Nylon’s characteristics made for an ideal material to suit any number of uses, but DuPont decided early on that it would focus on a single market: ladies’ full-fashioned hosiery...

Before DuPont could take its new miracle fiber to the public, however, its leaders had to decide what to call it... According to Ernest Gladding, manager of the Nylon Division in 1941, the name had originally been "Nuron," which not only implied novelty but cleverly spelled "no run" backwards...

y early 1938 the press was producing a steady stream of articles that suggested that stockings made from the mystery fiber would outlast silk and never run. If DuPont executives had begun to grow nervous about unrealistic expectations, they grew truly alarmed in September 1938 when the Washington News ran a story based on the newly released patent (U.S.... Read MORE...

1938 - October 30 – Orson Welles' radio adaptation of The War of the Worlds is broadcast, causing panic in various parts of the United States.
Martian Men Attack U.S.! Thousands Flee in Panic!! But Twas Only Wells and Welles

By Charles A. Grumich
NEW YORK, Oct. 31 (AP) - A horrible fantasy of war waged on the United States by fearsome, space-conquering men from Mars brought near panic to that part of the nation's radio audience which was not tuned in last night on Charlie McCarthy's rival radio program.

In the double-quick tempo of the news broadcasters, the fiction of a Columbia program became so realistic that hysteria prevailed among listeners throughout the United States and Canada.

Demands for investigation and correction came today with the belated reports of almost fantastic panic.

Senator Clyde L. Herring (D-Ia.) said he planned to introduce in Congress a bill "controlling just such abuses as was heard over the radio last night... Radio has no more right to produce program like that than someone has in knocking on your door and screaming," he added.

City Manager Paul Morton of Trenton, N.J., near the... Read MORE...

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1939 - May 1 – Batman, created by Bob Kane (and, unofficially, Bill Finger) makes his first appearance in a comic book.
May 1, 1939
1940 - May 15 - Women's stockings made of nylon are first placed on sale across the United States. Almost five million pairs are bought on this day.
Women Crowd Stores as Nylons Go on Sale
Curious Line Counters Two and Three Deep To Buy and Inspect New Synthetic Hosiery

Brooklyn women today joined their eager sisters throughout the land in greeting the event they have awaited for more than a year.

Nylon stockings are on the market!

Shopping crowds were increased considerably as women flocked to the stores where the new synthetic hose, made of yarn, chemical fibre, coal, air and water, went on sale.

As soon as the stores opened at 9:30 the Nylon stocking counters were doing business to a curious throng of women, two and three deep. Within a hour, however, the shoppers had hit a normal stride. There was none of the pushing and grabbing peculiar to a sales table. The revolution in the stocking trade started quietly.

Two to a Customer
Most of the stores, their supplies limited, would sell only two pairs to a customer. Prices in general were $1.15, $1.25 and $1.35. One store sold a two-thread gauge ... Read MORE...

1941 - January 13 – All persons born in Puerto Rico since this day are declared U.S. citizens by birth, through U.S. federal law.
January 13, 1941
1941 - May 1 - The breakfast cereal Cheerios is introduced as CheeriOats by General Mills.
May 1, 1941
1941 - October 23 – Walt Disney's animated film Dumbo is released
October 23, 1941

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1941 - December 8 - WWII: President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers his "Infamy Speech"
President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers his "Infamy Speech" to a Joint session of the United States Congress at 12:30 p.m. EST (17.30 GMT). Transmitted live over all four major national networks it attracts the largest audience ever for an American radio broadcast, over 81% of homes. Within an hour, Congress agrees to the President's request for a United States declaration of war upon Japan and he signs it at 4:10 p.m.
December 8, 1941

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1941 - December 11 - Germany and Italy declare war on the United States. The U.S. responds in kind.
December 11, 1941
1942 - February 2 – WWII: President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt signs an executive order directing the internment of Japanese Americans and the seizure of their property.
The attack on Pearl Harbor launched a rash of fear about national security, especially on the West Coast. In February 1942, just two months after Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt as commander-in-chief, issued Executive Order 9066, which had the effect of relocating all persons of Japanese ancestry, both citizens and aliens, inland, outside of the Pacific military zone. The objectives of the order were to prevent espionage and to protect persons of Japanese descent from harm at the hands of Americans who had strong anti-Japanese attitudes.

In Washington and Oregon, the eastern boundary of the military zone was an imaginary line along the rim of the Cascade Mountains; this line continued down the spine of California from north to south. From that line to the Pacific coast, the military restricted zones in those three states were defined.

Roosevelt's order affected 117,000 people of Japanese descent, two-thirds of whom were native-born citizens of the United States. The Issei were ... Read MORE...

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1942 - June 4–June 7 – WWII: The Battle of Midway: The Japanese naval advance in the Pacific is halted.

Naval History and Heritage Command (
June 7, 1942
1942 - June 5 – The United States declares war on Bulgaria, Hungary & Romania.
June 5, 1942
1942 - August 13 - Walt Disney's fifth animated film, Bambi, is released in the United States.
August 13, 1942

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1942 - December 1 – Gasoline rationing begins in the United States.
License Numbers To Be on Coupons

When individuals obtain their basic "A" gasoline rationing book, they must write their license number and states in which the automobile was registered on the back of each mileage ration coupon in ink, officials at the Denton County War Price and Ration Board said Tuesday. This will make the coupons valueless to anyone except the owner, and if the coupon book is lost or stolen, it can be more easily traced, it was explained.
Denton Record-Chronicle
Denton, Texas
November 17, 1942
1943 - February 7 – WWII: In the United States, it is announced that shoe rationing will go into effect in 2 days.
Steps in Rationing Listed

WASHINGTON, Feb. 7 (AP) - Step forward in your last pair of unrationed shoes and consider 13 months of rationing in the United States -

Tires came first. A buying wave broke out the day after Pearl Harbor and the Government froze all sales of new tires Dec. 11, 1941. Rationing began Jan. 5, 1942, under regulations designed to keep essential drivers on the road. Retread rationing followed Feb. 19.

Rationing of automobiles came March 2, with sales restricted generally to those requiring cars in their businesses.

Curtailed imports and runs on grocery stores preceded the start of sugar rationing May 5.

Rationing of gasoline began May 15 for 9,000,000 motorists of 17 eastern states, and was extended Dec. 1 to the other states.

Bicycles came under rationing July 9.

Fuel oil was rationed starting Oct. 1 in 30 states, and rationing is now being extended to the Pacific northwest.

Then coffee supplies became short, and staring Nov. 29 you... Read MORE...

1943 - Penicillin first used successfully to treat a patient

Changes Method Of War On Germs; Pales "Glory" Of Sulfa

By Howard W. Blakeslee
NEW YORK, Aug. 2. - (AP) - A new era in medicine, the conquest of germs by interfering with their eating and digestion, is sweeping through the military hospital of America and England.

The sulfa drugs started it, but the realization is coming through a newer and more successful remedy, penicillin.

The difference between the new era and the old is the difference between using a germ poison and a milder cure. Heretofore drugs for germs have poisoned and killed them outright.

The new remedies don't kill the germs as a rule, but weaken them by interfering with the germ's metabolism, leaving the body's natural defenses to kill the bacilli and make the cure.

The sulfas, by saving hundreds of thousands of lives, have demonstrated that this interference works better than outright killing. But the sulfas carry some risks, such as headaches, dizziness, nausea,... Read MORE...

1944 - June 6 - WWII – D-Day:
155,000 Allied troops shipped from England land on the beaches of Normandy in northern France, beginning Operation Overlord and the Invasion of Normandy. The Allied soldiers quickly break through the Atlantic Wall and push inland, in the largest amphibious military operation in history. This operation helps liberate France from Germany, and also weakens the Nazi hold on Europe. (Wikipedia)

Early in the morning of June 6, 1944, Americans heard on their radios that thousands of American and British soldiers had landed on the beaches of northern France. They were fighting German soldiers. This day marked the beginning of the end of one of the bloodiest wars ever: World War II.

The American and British invasion of France was a top-secret mission called "Operation Overlord." When they landed on the beaches of Normandy on June 6, the goal of every soldier was to drive the German military back. Thousands of men died during that effort, either in the churning waves of the sea or by... Read MORE...

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1944 - August 7 – IBM dedicates the first program-controlled calculator, the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (known best as the Harvard Mark I).
August 7, 1944
1944 - August 9 – The United States Forest Service and the Wartime Advertising Council release posters featuring Smokey Bear for the first time.
August 9, 1944
1944 - October 8 – The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet radio show debuts in the United States.
October 8, 1944
1945 - February 23 - Battle of Iwo Jima: A group of United States Marines reach the top of Mount Suribachi on the island and are photographed raising the American flag.
February 23, 1945
1945 - April 12 - Harry S. Truman (1884-1972) becomes 33rd President of the United States
Elected vice president in 1944, Truman became president upon Roosevelt's sudden death in April 1945 and was immediately faced with the problems of winding down the war against the Axis and preparing the nation for postwar adjustment. Germany surrendered on May 8, and in July Truman attended the Potsdam Conference to discuss the settlement plans for postwar Europe. To end the war with Japan, he authorized the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on Aug. 6 and Aug. 9, 1945. Japan surrendered on Aug. 14. Although the action undoubtedly saved many American lives by bringing the war to an end, the morality of the decision is still debated.

The years 1947–48 were distinguished by civil-rights proposals, the Truman Doctrine to contain the spread of Communism, and the Marshall Plan to aid in the economic reconstruction of war-ravaged nations. Truman's general record, highlighted by a vigorous Fair Deal campaign, brought about his unexpected election in 1948 over the heavily... Read MORE...

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1945 - The atomic bomb is invented (J. Robert Oppenheimer, et al., United States)
Washington Column by Peter Edson

WASHINGTON - (NEA) - When first publicity was given in the fall of 1945 to the men who had made the atomic bomb, interest centered on the then practically unknown young University of California physicist, Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer.

He had headed the Los Alamos, N.M. laboratory where the first three atomic bombs had been put together to win the war.

No one was allowed to see him there. He had to talk to visitors through the gate. But he was allowed to go down to Sandia, N.M., when the U.S. press was first taken to the proving ground to see the crater made by the first test bomb.

When this reporter asked Dr. Oppenheimer what he wanted to do next, he said he wanted "to go some place and run a lunchroom." After three years of the most intense mental strain, he was terribly tired. He wanted to get as far away from atomic bombs and killing as he possibly could.

If Dr. Oppenheimer had done just that, he would probably not be in the predicament... Read MORE...

1945 - July 21 – WWII: President Harry S. Truman approves the order for atomic bombs to be used against Japan
July 21, 1945
1945 - August 6 – WWII: Atomic bombing of Hiroshima: A United States B-29 Superfortress, the Enola Gay, drops an atomic bomb, codenamed "Little Boy", on Hiroshima, Japan, at 8:15 a.m. (local time).
Blasting of Hiroshima
Atomic Bomb Kills 150,000
...All Living Things Seared To Death, Tokyo Says

OKINAWA, Aug. 8 - (NS) - At least 150,000 Japanese were estimated today to have been killed Monday in the atomic bombing of the Japanese city of Hiroshima.

This estimate was made by Lt. Col. Bob Herring, Breckenridge, Tex., and scores of veteran airmen after viewing new reconnaissance photographs taken of the devastated city by Okinawa-based planes.

The latest reconnaissance photographs failed to show any buildings or walls standing anywhere in Hiroshima.

The southern Honshu city was levelled flat and looked like a million comets dug up and disintegrated everything.

The scene of desolation created a great furore among troops who now believe the end of the war is in sight.

They can't imagine that even the Japanese will be willing to see their entire nation wiped out by atomic bombs.

The only question in the minds of soldiers on Okinawa is:

"How many atomic bombs...

1945 - August 9 - Atomic bombing of Nagasaki: A United States B-29 Bomber, Bockscar, drops an atomic bomb, codenamed "Fat Man", on Nagasaki, Japan, at 11:02 a.m. (local time).
Another Atomic Bomb Dropped on Enemy City
Important Kyushu City of Nagasaki Struck With 'Good Results'; Other B29s Leave Four Major Targets Afire

GUAM, Aug. 9 (AP) - The world's most destructive force - the atomic bomb - was used for the second time against Japan Thursday, striking the important Kyushu island city of Nagasaki with observed "good results." More than one bomb may have been dropped in this second attack and it might have been of a different size than the first one which destroyed 60 per cent of Hiroshima. The carefully worded communique said only that the second use of the atomic bomb had occurred, leaving to speculation all other details...
The Post-Register
Idaho Falls, Idaho
August 9, 1945
1945 - September 2 - World War II ends
Japan Surrenders Formally, Unconditionally to Allies in Short Ritual; V-J Day Today

Truman Lauds Day of Victory Over Tyranny
Bright New Era of Hope of International Good Will Seen

WASHINGTON, Sept. 1. - (AP) - President Truman tonight proclaimed Sunday, Sept. 2, as V-J Day - for Japan of "retribution," for America and the world a day of the "victory of liberty over tyranny."

Mr. Truman spoke over a globe-girdling radio hook up that linked the White House with Tokyo where aboard the great battleship Missouri just off the enemy capital, Japan abjectly signed the terms of her surrender...

The Sunday News and Tribune
Jefferson City, Missouri
September 2, 1945
1945 - December 4 - U.S. joins United Nations

December 4, 1945
1946 - January 10 - Project Diana bounces radar waves off the Moon, measuring the exact distance between the Earth and the Moon, and proves that communication is possible between Earth and outer space, effectively opening the space age
January 10, 1946
1947 - May 2 – The movie Miracle on 34th Street, a Christmastime classic, is first shown in theaters.
May 2, 1947
1947 - Fay v. New York, 332 U.S. 261 (1947), the U.S. Supreme Court says women are equally qualified with men to serve on juries but are granted an exemption and may serve or not as women choose.
1947 - September 9 –A moth lodged in a relay is found to be the cause of a malfunction in the Harvard Mark II electromechanical computer, logged as "First actual case of bug being found."
September 9, 1947
1947 - November 6 – The program Meet the Press makes its television debut on the NBC-TV network in the United States.
November 6, 1947
1948 - January 5 – Warner Brothers shows the first color newsreel (Tournament of Roses Parade and the Rose Bowl).
January 5, 1948
1948 - February 21 – The stock car racing organization NASCAR is founded by Bill France, Sr.
February 21, 1948
1948 - June 18 – LP record – Columbia Records introduced its long playing 33 1/3 rpm phonograph format.
June 18, 1948
1950 - January 31 - President Harry S. Truman orders the development of the hydrogen bomb, in response to the detonation of the Soviet Union's first atomic bomb in 1949
January 31, 1950

Read more about Harry Shipp TRUMAN photo of ancestor
1950 - June 25 - Korean War begins when North Korean forces invade South Korea
Armed forces from communist North Korea smash into South Korea, setting off the Korean War. The United States, acting under the auspices of the United Nations, quickly sprang to the defense of South Korea and fought a bloody and frustrating war for the next three years.
June 25, 1950
1950 - September 24-30 - A smoke pall from western Canada forest fires covered much of the eastern U.S.
Daylight was reduced to nighttime darkness in parts of the Northeast. The color of the sun varied from pink to purple, blue, or lavendar. Yellow to grey-tan was common.
The Weather Channel
1952 - May 3 - The first airplane lands at the geographic North Pole
A ski-modified U.S. Air Force C-47 piloted by Lieutenant Colonel Joseph O. Fletcher of Oklahoma and Lieutenant Colonel William P. Benedict of California becomes the first aircraft to land on the North Pole. A moment later, Fletcher climbed out of the plane and walked to the exact geographic North Pole, probably the first person in history to do so.
May 3, 1952
1953 - January 20 - Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890-1969) becomes 34th President of the United States
At the Republican convention of 1952 in Chicago, Eisenhower won the presidential nomination on the first ballot in a close race with Sen. Robert A. Taft of Ohio. In the election, he defeated Gov. Adlai E. Stevenson of Illinois.

Through two terms, Eisenhower hewed to moderate domestic policies. He sought peace through Free World strength in an era of new nationalisms, nuclear missiles, and space exploration. He fostered alliances pledging the United States to resist “Red” aggression in Europe, Asia, and Latin America. The Eisenhower Doctrine of 1957 extended commitments to the Middle East.

At home, the popular president lacked Republican congressional majorities after 1954, but he was reelected in 1956 by 457 electoral votes to 73 for Stevenson.

While retaining most Fair Deal programs, he stressed “fiscal responsibility” in domestic affairs. A moderate in civil rights, he sent troops to Little Rock, Ark., to enforce court-ordered school... Read MORE...

Read more about Dwight David EISENHOWER photo of ancestor
1953 - July 27 - Korean War ends
After three years of a bloody and frustrating war, the United States, the People's Republic of China, North Korea, and South Korea agree to an armistice, bringing the Korean War to an end. The armistice ended America's first experiment with the Cold War concept of "limited war."
July 27, 1953
1958 - July 29 - NASA formed
On July 29, 1958, President Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 establishing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

Read more about Dwight David EISENHOWER photo of ancestor
1960 - Civil Rights Act of 1960
The Civil Rights Act of 1960 (enacted May 6, 1960) was a United States federal law that established federal inspection of local voter registration polls and introduced penalties for anyone who obstructed someone's attempt to register to vote. It was designed to deal with discriminatory laws and practices in the segregated South, by which blacks had been effectively disfranchised since the late 19th and start of the 20th century.
1960 - June 23 - The FDA announces its approval of “The Pill,” the first birth-control drug.
1961 - Vietnam War officially begins with 900 military advisors landing in Saigon

1961 - January 20 - John F. Kennedy (1917-1963) becomes 35th President of the United States
On November 22, 1963, when he was hardly past his first thousand days in office, John Fitzgerald Kennedy was killed by an assassin's bullets as his motorcade wound through Dallas, Texas. Kennedy was the youngest man elected President; he was the youngest to die...

In 1956 Kennedy almost gained the Democratic nomination for Vice President, and four years later was a first-ballot nominee for President. Millions watched his television debates with the Republican candidate, Richard M. Nixon. Winning by a narrow margin in the popular vote, Kennedy became the first Roman Catholic President.

His Inaugural Address offered the memorable injunction: "Ask not what your country can do for you--ask what you can do for your country." ...

January 20, 1961

Read more about John Fitzgerald KENNEDY photo of ancestor
1961 - In Hoyt v. Florida, 368 U.S. 57 (1961): The U.S. Supreme Court upholds rules adopted by the state of Florida that made it far less likely for women than men to be called for jury service
on the grounds that a “woman is still regarded as the center of home and family life.”
1962 - Cuban Missile Crisis

1963 - The US passes the first legislation requiring equal pay for equal work, but it would need to be expanded in 1972 to salespeople, executives, administrators, etc.
The Equal Pay Act promises equitable wages for the same work, regardless of the race, color, religion, national origin or sex of the worker.
1963 - Novmember 22 - Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-1973) becomes 36th President of the United States following the assassination of John F. Kennedy
At the height of his power as Senate leader, Johnson sought the Democratic nomination for president in 1960. When he lost to John F. Kennedy, he surprised even some of his closest associates by accepting second place on the ticket.

Johnson was riding in another car in the motorcade when Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas on Nov. 22, 1963. He took the oath of office in the presidential jet on the Dallas airfield.

With Johnson's insistent backing, Congress finally adopted a far-reaching civil-rights bill, a voting-rights bill, a Medicare program for the aged, and measures to improve education and conservation. Congress also began what Johnson described as “an all-out war” on poverty.

Amassing a record-breaking majority of nearly 16 million votes, Johnson was elected president in his own right in 1964, defeating Sen. Barry Goldwater of Arizona.

The double tragedy of a war in Southeast Asia and urban riots at home marked Johnson's last two years in office. Faced with disunity... Read MORE...

Read more about Lyndon Baines JOHNSON photo of ancestor
1964 - January 23 - The 24th Amendment Ended the Poll Tax
"Imagine that you are finally old enough to vote in your first election. But, do you have enough money? Money, to vote? Not long ago, citizens in some states had to pay a fee to vote in a national election. This fee was called a poll tax. On January 23, 1964, the United States ratified the 24th Amendment to the Constitution, prohibiting any poll tax in elections for federal officials.

Many Southern states adopted a poll tax in the late 1800s. This meant that even though the 15th Amendment gave former slaves the right to vote, many poor people, both blacks and whites, did not have enough money to vote.
"Do you know I've never voted in my life, never been able to exercise my right as a citizen because of the poll tax?"
"Mr. Trout" to Mr. Pike, interviewer, Atlanta, Georgia. American Life Histories, 1936 - 1940.

More than 20 years after "Mr. Trout" spoke those words, the poll tax was abolished. At the ceremony in 1964 formalizing the 24th Amendment, President Lyndon Johnson... Read MORE...

1964 - Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act, signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson on July 2, 1964, prohibited discrimination in public places, provided for the integration of schools and other public facilities, and made employment discrimination illegal. This document was the most sweeping civil rights legislation since Reconstruction.

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act passes including a prohibition against employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, or sex.
1965 - Vietnam War - First U.S. ground combat forces arrive in South Vietnam

1965 - June 7 - In Griswold v Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479, the Supreme Court overturns one of the last state laws prohibiting the prescription or use of contraceptives by married couples.
1968 - April 11 - Civil Rights Act of 1968
Also known as the Fair Housing Act of 1968
Congress passed the act in an effort to impose a comprehensive solution to the problem of unlawful discrimination in housing based on race, color, sex, national origin, or religion. The Fair Housing Act has become a central feature of modern Civil Rights enforcement, enabling persons in the protected classes to rent or own residential property in areas that were previously segregated.
1968 - The ATM is invented (Don Wetzel, United States)
In 1968 the ATM was pioneered in the U.S. by Donald Wetzel, who was a department head at a company called Docutel. Docutel was a subsidiary of Recognition Equipment Inc of Dallas, Texas, which was producing optical scanning equipment and had instructed Docutel to explore automated baggage handling and automated gasoline pumps.

On 2 September 1969, Chemical Bank installed the first ATM in the U.S. at its branch in Rockville Centre, New York. The first ATMs were designed to dispense a fixed amount of cash when a user inserted a specially coded card.
1969 - January 20 - Richard M. Nixon (1913-1994) becomes 37th President of the United States

January 20, 1969

Read more about Richard Milhous NIXON photo of ancestor
1969 - In Bowe v. Colgate-Palmolive Company, 416 F. 2d 711 (7th Cir.1969), the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals rules that women meeting the physical requirements can work in many jobs that had been for men only.

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1969 - July 20 - Apollo 11 - Man lands on the moon
Taken There By Spacemen

SPACE CENTER, Houston (AP) - Two Americans, who strode the moon's surface for the first time and raised their nations' banner above it, held the world in suspense again today with a perilous blastoff for the long journey home.

A successful liftoff and rendezvous with their orbiting ship would climax and epic expedition in which Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr. fulfilled a centuries-old dream of men everywhere.

There is only one liftoff engine on the landing craft they call Eagle. It must work, or the astronauts would be stranded with only 15 hours of oxygen left and no hope of rescue.

They are confident it will perform flawlessly as have millions of other parts of Apollo 11 hardware during the incredible journey that carried man's quest for the unknown to his first landing on another celestial body.

The launching from the moon was scheduled for 2:55 p.m. EDT.

A successful liftoff would shoot them...

1970 - January 13 - Schultz v Wheaton Glass: a federal appeals court decision makes it illegal for a company to change a job’s title so that they could pay women who held the position less than male workers.
1971 - January 25 - Phillips v. Martin Marietta Corporation, 400 U.S. 542: The U.S. Supreme Court outlaws the practice of private employers refusing to hire women with pre-school children.
1971 - November 22 - Reed v. Reed, 404 U.S. 71: The U.S. Supreme Court holds unconstitutional a state law (Idaho) establishing automatic preference for males as administrators of wills.
This is the first time the court strikes down a law treating men and women differently. The Court finally declares women as “persons,” but uses a “reasonableness” test rather than making sex a “suspect classification,” analogous to race, under the Fourteenth Amendment.
1972 - March 22 - In Eisenstadt v. Baird, 405 U.S. 438, the Supreme Court rules that the right to privacy encompasses an unmarried person’s right to use contraceptives.
1972 - June 23 - Title IX (Public Law 92-318) of the Education Amendments prohibits sex discrimination in all aspects of education programs that receive federal support.
1973 - January 22 - Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 and Doe v. Bolton, 410 U.S. 179: The U.S. Supreme Court declares that the Constitution protects women’s right to terminate an early pregnancy, thus making abortion legal in the U.S.
On January 22, 1973, the Supreme Court issued a 7–2 decision in favor of "Jane Roe" (Norma McCorvey) holding that women in the United States had a fundamental right to choose whether to have abortions without excessive government restriction and striking down Texas's abortion ban as unconstitutional.
1973 - March 29 – The last United States soldier leaves Vietnam.

March 29, 1973
1973 - June 21 - Pittsburgh Press v. Pittsburgh Commission on Human Relations, 413 U.S. 376 (1973): The U.S. Supreme Court bans sex-segregated “help wanted” advertising as a violation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as amended.
1974 - January 21 - Cleveland Board of Education v. LaFleur, 414 U.S. 632 (1974), determines it is illegal to force pregnant women to take maternity leave on the assumption they are incapable of working in their physical condition.
1974 - August 9 - Gerald R. Ford (1913-2006) becomes 38th President of the United States after the resignation of Richard M. Nixon

August 9, 1974

Read more about Gerald Rudolph FORD photo of ancestor
1947 - October 8 - Equal Credit Opportunity Act of 1974
The Equal Credit Opportunity Act was signed into law by President Gerald Ford on October 28, 1974. The ECOA prohibits creditors from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, or age.

Equal Credit Opportunity Act passes in the US. Until then, banks required single, widowed or divorced women to bring a man along to cosign any credit application, regardless of their income. They would also discount the value of those wages when considering how much credit to grant, by as much as 50%.
1975 - January 21 - Taylor v. Louisiana, 419 U.S. 522 (1975), denies states the right to exclude women from juries.
Metric Conversion Act of 1975 declared the metric system the preferred method for measurements in the United States.
The Metric Conversion Act of 1975 is an Act of Congress that U.S. President Gerald Ford signed into law on December 23, 1975. It declared the metric system "the preferred system of weights and measures for United States trade and commerce", but permitted the use of United States customary units in all activities.
1976 - December 20 - Craig v. Boren, 429 U.S. 190: The U.S. Supreme Court declares unconstitutional a state law permitting 18 to 20-year-old females to drink beer while denying the rights to men of the same age.
The Court establishes new set of standards for reviewing laws that treat men and women differently—an “intermediate” test stricter than the “reasonableness” test for constitutionality in sex discrimination cases.
1977 - January 20 - Jimmy Carter (1924 - ) becomes 39th President of the United States

January 20, 1977

Read more about James Earl "Jimmy" CARTER photo of ancestor
1977 - Personal Computer introduced
The TRS-80 Micro Computer System (TRS-80, later renamed the Model I to distinguish it from successors) is a desktop microcomputer launched in 1977 and sold by Tandy Corporation through their RadioShack stores. The name is an abbreviation of Tandy/ RadioShack, Z80 microprocessor. (wikipedia)

Radio Shack, a division of Tandy Corporation, has announced its line of new products for 1981, including three new additions to its family of TRS-80 computers.

The TRS-80 Model III desktop computer, company officials say, is designed to meet the needs of many users for more data storage, greater versatility and higher computing speed.

The TRS-80 Pocket Computer weighs only 6 ounces and is less than 7 inches long. Yet, it is said to be able to do almost any of the smaller jobs the popular TRS-80 Model I computer can perform.

The new TRS-80 Color Computer provides color graphics and features instant-load Program Pak software that lets the user instantly program the computer for a variety... Read MORE...

1978 - The Pregnancy Discrimination Act is passed in the US.
Until the law was put into effect, women could still legally be dismissed from their jobs for becoming pregnant.
1979 - Iran hostage crisis begins
It began November 4, 1979 and ended January 20, 1981.
1981 - The U.S. Supreme Court rules that excluding women from the draft is constitutional.
1981 - January 20 - Ronald Reagan (1911-2004) beomes 40th President of the United States

January 20, 1981

Read more about Ronald Wilson REAGAN photo of ancestor
1981 - March 23 - Kirchberg v Feenstra - A husband is told he doesn’t have the right to unilaterally take out a second mortgage on property held jointly with his wife.
1981 - March 30 - Attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan by John Hinckley

1981 - June 5 - First reported case of AIDS

1981 - August 19 - President Ronald Reagan nominates Sandra Day O’Connor to be the first woman on the Supreme Court.
1981 - August 26 - Voyager 2 reaches Saturn

1983 - The laptop computer is invented (Radio Shack Corp., United States)
The TRS-80 Model 100 is a portable computer introduced in 1983. It is one of the first notebook-style computers, featuring a keyboard and liquid crystal display, in a battery-powered package roughly the size and shape of a notepad or large book.

It was made by Kyocera, and originally sold in Japan as the Kyotronic 85. Although a slow seller for Kyocera, the rights to the machine were purchased by Tandy Corporation. The computer was sold through Radio Shack stores in the United States and Canada and affiliated dealers in other countries. It became one of the company's most popular models, with over 6 million units sold worldwide.
1986 - Iran-Contra scandal breaks

1986 - January 28 - Space Shuttle Challenger accident

1989 - January 20 - George H. W. Bush (1924 - ) becomes 41st President of the United States

January 20, 1989

Read more about George Herbert Walker BUSH
1989 - December 3 - Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev and US President George H. W. Bush, declare the Cold War over
December 3, 1989
1991 - Gulf War

1993 - January 20 - William J. Clinton (1946 - ) becomes 42nd President of the United States

January 20, 1993
1993 - February 5 - The Family and Medical Leave Act becomes law in the US.
Madeleine Albright becomes the first female Secretary of State, 1997
Madeleine Korbel Albright was nominated to be the first woman Secretary of State by President William Jefferson Clinton on December 5, 1996, confirmed by the U.S. Senate on January 22, 1997, and sworn in the next day. She served in the position for four years and ended her service on January 20, 2001.
January 22, 1997
1997 - July 4 - NASA spacecraft Mars Pathfinder lands on Mars

2001 - January 20 - George W. Bush (1946 - ) becomes 43rd President of the United States

January 20, 2001
2001 - September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks

September 11, 2001
2001 - Invasion of Afghanistan Operation "Enduring Freedom"

2004 - Condoleezza Rice becomes the first black female Secretary of State.
2007 - Nancy Pelosi becomes the first female speaker of the House.
2009 - President Barack Obama signs the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Restoration act, which allows people to sue companies for pay discrimination even if more than six months have passed.
2009 - Sonia Sotomayor is nominated as the 111th U.S. Supreme Court Justice. Sotomayor becomes the first Hispanic American and the third woman to serve.
2009 - January 20 - Barack Obama (1961 - ) becomes 44th President of the United States

January 20, 2009
2010 - The Affordable Health Care Act is signed into law. Under this law, private health insurance companies must provide birth control without co-pays or deductibles. The law requires private insurance companies to cover preventive services.
2013 - June 26 -United States v. Windsor 570 U.S. Supreme Court decides that a key part of DOMA, the law that restricts federal recognition of same-sex marriage, is unconstitutional because it violates the equal protection clause of the constitution.
Hillary Clinton becomes first female presidential nominee of a major party, 2016
2017 - January 20 - Donald J Trump (1946 - ) becomes 45th President of the United States

January 20, 2017
2021 - January 20 - Joseph R Biden (1942 - ) becomes 46th President of the United States

January 20, 2021
2023 - Here's a list of some must-visit places and activities across the country:
1. New York City, New York:

Explore Times Square and Broadway.

Visit the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island.

Take a stroll in Central Park.

Go museum hopping, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA).

Enjoy the view from the Top of the Rock or the Empire State Building.

2. Grand Canyon, Arizona:

Hike along the Grand Canyon's rim or venture into the depths on a guided tour.

Watch a sunrise or sunset over the canyon for breathtaking views.

Raft down the Colorado River for a unique perspective.

3. Las Vegas, Nevada:

Experience the vibrant nightlife and entertainment on the Las Vegas Strip.

Try your luck at the numerous casinos and resorts.
Watch world-class shows and performances.

4. San Francisco, California:

Walk across the Golden Gate Bridge.

Explore the historic Alcatraz Island.

Ride the iconic cable cars.

Visit Fisherman's Wharf and enjoy clam chowder in a sourdough bread bowl.

5. New Orleans, ...

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