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, New Hampshire, USA
1839 - New Hampshire

This state is bounded north by Lower Canada, east by Maine, south-east by the Atlantic and the State of Massachusetts, south by Massachusetts, and west and north-west by Vermont. Situated between 42°40' and 45°16'N. lat., and 72°27' and 70°35'W. lon. Its length is 168, and its greatest breadth about 90 miles, and it comprises an area of about 9,280 square miles.

The first discovery of New Hampshire was in 1614, and the first settlements made by Europeans were at Dover and Portsmouth in 1623; only three years after the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth. The next settlements were at Exeter and Hampton, in 1638. The inhabitants of these and all the early settlements, until after the cession of Canada to England by France, were greatly annoyed by the Indians, who existed in large and powerful bodies in this then wilderness. In the repeated and general wars with the Indians, New Hampshire suffered more than any other of the colonies. This colony was twice united with that of Massachusetts, and the final separation did not take place until 1741, when the boundaries of the two colonies were settled. In the revolutionary contest, New Hampshire bore a distinguished and honorable part. The blood of her sons was freely shed on most of the battle fields of the revolution. As early as June 15, 1776, New Hampshire made a public Declaration of Independence, and in December of that year, the delegates of the people adopted a temporary form of Government, which was continued until 1784, when the first constitution was adopted. This being found deficient in some of its provisions, a new constitution was adopted in 1792, which is now in force.

New Hampshire is divided into eight counties, as follows:—Rockingham, Strafford, Merrimack, Hillsborough, Cheshire, Sullivan, Grafton, Coos.

New Hampshire is more mountainous than any of her sister states, yet she boasts of large quantities of luxuriant intervale. Her high lands produce food for cattle of peculiar sweetness; and no where can be found the necessaries, conveniences, and luxuries of life, united, in greater abundance: cattle and wool are its principal staples. This state may be said to be the mother of New England rivers. The Connecticut, Merrimack, Saco, Androscoggin and Piscataqua, receive most of their waters from the high lands of New Hampshire: while the former washes the western boundary of the state 168 miles, the Merrimack pierces its centre, and the Piscataqua forms the beautiful harbor of Portsmouth, a depot of the American navy.

These majestic rivers, with their tributary streams afford this state an immense water power, of which manufacturers, with large capitals, avail themselves.

The largest collection of water in the state is Lake Winnepisiogee, (pronounced Win-ne-pe-sok'-e.) It is one of the most varied and beautiful sheets of water on the American continent. Lakes Connecticut, Ossipee, Umbagog, Squam, Sunapee, Massabesick, are large collections of water, and abound with fish and fowl.

New Hampshire is frequently called the Granite State, from the vast quantities of that rock found within its territory. The granite is of a superior quality, and much of it is quarried and transported to other states. The geological structure is highly interesting. Iron and copper ore and plumbago, of excellent qualities, are found; and coal and other valuable minerals are supposed to exist.

This state is also called the Switzerland of America, on account of the salubrity of its climate; its wild and picturesque landscapes; its lakes and rapid streams. The celebrated White Mountains, in the northern part of the state, are of great elevation, and afford the grandest display of mountain scenery in our country.

The New England Gazetteer containing descriptions of all the states, counties and towns in New England: also descriptions of the principal mountains, rivers lakes, capes, bays, harbors, islands and fashionable resorts within that territory. Alphabetically arranged. By John Hayward, author of the Columbian Traveller, Religious Creeds, &c. &c. Boston: John Hayward. Boyd & White, Concord, N.H. 1839

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