Durham, England - 1895 - Durham
Dur'ham, formerly Dun/ holme (L. Dunel'mia, Dun el'mum, or Dunholmum), a city of England, capital of the above county, nearly in its centre, at the junction of numerous railways, 143 miles S. of Newcastle. It has an imposing external appearance, its cathedral and castle occupying the summit of a steep rocky eminence, surrounded by hanging gardens and plantations, and nearly encircled by the Wear, here crossed by several bridges, and beyond which, on either side, are the quarters of Framwellgate, Elvet, &c. The cathedral, founded in 1093, and one of the noblest edifices in the kingdom, is 507 feet in length, including the western porch, by 200 feet in its greatest breadth, and has a central tower 214 feet in height; it is chiefly of massive Norman architecture, and has the tomb of St. Cuthbert, the chapel of the Venerable Bede, a fine W. front, with a Galilee chapel, and two richly ornamented towers 143 feet in height. The see, founded near the end of the tenth century, was long the richest bishopric in England. Adjoining the cloisters are the deanery, library, chapter-house, prebendal college, and exchequer. The castle, a little N. of the cathedral, was founded by William the Conqueror, and contains apartments for the bishop, but is otherwise chiefly appropriated to the university, incorporated in 1833, and which succeeded one existing from the time of Cromwell to the Restoration. There is a college called Halfield Hall, in which students can be educated on much cheaper terms than in the university. An additional college, on terms similar to those of Halfield Hall, was opened in 1851. Durham has 7 parish churches, Roman Catholic and other chapels, a grammar-school with exhibitions to Oxford and Cambridge, a well-endowed blue-coat school and numerous other schools, an infirmary, almshouses, and many other charitable institutions, public libraries, and assembly-rooms. In the old town, on the N., are the market-place, theatre, and principal shops; in the quarter called Elvet are the county jail and the court-house. Pop, in 1881, 14,932; in 1891, 14,863.
Lippincott's Gazetteer of the World: A Complete Pronouncing Gazetteer Or Geographical Dictionary of the World Containing Notices of Over One Hundred and Twenty-five Thousand Places ... Joseph Thomas January 1, 1895 J.B. Lippincott
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