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, Hawaii, USA - 1895 - Hawaii

Hawaii, hā-wi'ee, or Hawaiian Archipelago, named by Captain Cook "The Sandwich Islands," after Lord Sandwich, of the Admiralty, is situated in the Pacific Ocean, in the route from San Francisco and Vancouver to China and Japan, about 2100 miles from the American coast. Lat. 19° to 22° 20' N.; Lon. 155° to 160° W. The group consists of 8 inhabited islands and several barren rocks, the names and area of the former being, Hawaii (the "Owyhee" of Captain Cook), 4210 square miles; Maui, 760; Oahu, 600; Kauai, 590; Molokai ("Lepers' Island"), 270; Lanai, 150; Kahoolawe, 63; and Nihau, 97. The total area of the archipelago is estimated at 7629 square miles. The islands are of volcanic origin, and here are found some of the largest volcanoes (both active and extinct) in the world. Mauna-Kea and Mauna-Loa, on the island of Hawaii (the latter an active volcano) are respectively 13,805 and 13,675 feet in height. Other mountains traverse this island, giving it a rugged and picturesque appearance, its bold cliffs 1000 to 3000 feet in height in some places fronting upon the sea. On Maui is the famous crater of Haleakala, 25 to 30 miles in circumference, 2000 to 3000 feet deep, and 10,030 feet above sea level. The soil at the base of the mountains and in the valleys is fertile; thousands of sheep find grazing-ground on the higher plateaus, while the lower levels spread into grassy plains, rich with sugar- and rice-plantations. The chief exports in 1892 were, sugar ($7,276,594), rice ($463,652), bananas ($104,945), and wool ($32,185); the imports, chiefly from the United States, amounted to about $4,684,000. In early times each island had a king, but under Kamehameha I. (died 1819) the islands were formed into one kingdom,— a simple despotism, which continued until 1840, when Kamehameha III. granted a constitutional government, consisting of a king, an assembly of nobles, and a representative council. On January 17, 1893, a revolution occurred, Queen Liliuokalani was deposed, and subsequently a republic was formed. Capital, Honolulu. The population of the Archipelago in 1890 was 89,990.

Lippincott's Gazetteer of the World: A Complete Pronouncing Gazetteer Or Geographical Dictionary of the World Containing Notices of Over One Hundred and Twenty-five Thousand Places ... Joseph Thomas January 1, 1895 J.B. Lippincott

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