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What is the history of Québec Province, Canada ?

People, Pictures, Old Postcards and Stories From the Past

(Quebec)

Explore Québec Province, Canada. Discover its history. Learn about the people who lived there through stories, old newspaper articles, pictures and genealogy.
Québec is the largest province in Canada by area and borders Ontario, New Brunswick and Newfoundland (Labrador was attributed to Newfoundland in 1927 by the British Privy Council). The territory of Québec represents 15.5% of the surface area of Canada and totals 1.5 million km2. This is equal to the size of France, Germany and Spain combined. The province also neighbours on 4 American states: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont and New York.

Despite its impressive size, the territory of Québec today is only a portion of what was once New France. The original boundaries were changed through the ROYAL PROCLAMATION OF 1763, the QUEBEC ACT of 1774, the CONSTITUTIONAL ACT, 1791 and the BRITISH NORTH AMERICA ACT of 1867.

The French North American empire before 1763 was a vast territory including the St Lawrence River valley, the Great Lakes region and territories around the Missouri and Mississippi rivers from the Ohio River valley to the Gulf of Mexico. The JAMES BAY region and the northern part of Québec were officially British territories after the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, half a century before the Conquest of 1760. The word Canada (meaning "village" in Iroquoian), not Québec, was used by the French to refer to the territory of New France that lay along the St Lawrence River. There was a strong sense among the French population of belonging to North America. The inclusion of the vast interior of the continent, reinforced by the fur trade and French exploration, has never completely disappeared from the complex sense of identity of francophone Quebeckers.

The name Québec referred, until 1763 and the Royal Proclamation, to the city of Québec only. The name was inspired by an Algonquian word meaning "where the river narrows." It was the British, not the French, who first used the word Québec in a broader sense.

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  • 1600 - King Henry IV of France grants a fur-trading monopoly in the Gulf of St. Lawrence to a group of French merchants.

    fccs.ok.ubc.ca/about/links/resources/canadian-history/prehistory-to-1800.html

  • 1608: Champlain sets up an "Habitation" at Quebec as well as alliances with the Algonquin, Huron and Montagnais tribes for control of the fur trade.


  • 1609 - Champlain supports the Algonquins against the Iroquois at Lake Champlain.

    fccs.ok.ubc.ca/about/links/resources/canadian-history/prehistory-to-1800.html

  • 1611: A European colony is established by Champlain on the Island of Montréal (Ville Marie).


  • The winter of 1608-1609 decimated the group of Frenchmen living in Quebec. By 1611, only 17 men - and no women - inhabited Quebec.

    History of Quebec for Dummies by Eric Bedard, published by John Wiley & Sons, Canada, Ltd.

  • 1617: Louis Hébert and his family settle at Quebec (first settlers)


  • 1625: Arrival of the Jesuits in Quebec.
    Jesuits begin missionary work among the Indians in the Québec area. Jean de Brébeuf founds missions in Huronia, near Georgian Bay.
    fccs.ok.ubc.ca/about/links/resources/canadian-history/prehistory-to-1800.html

  • 1627 - Seigneurial system introduced by King Louis XIV of France, forbade settlement in New France by anyone other than Roman Catholics
    On April 29, 1627, Cardinal Richelieu signed a deed establishing a large company owned by about 100 associates. The official name of the new entity...Read MORE...


  • 1627 - The Company of One Hundred Associates (a.k.a. the Company of New France) is given a fur monopoly and title to all lands claimed by New France (April 29). In exchange, they are to establish a French colony of 4000 by 1643, which they fail to do

    fccs.ok.ubc.ca/about/links/resources/canadian-history/prehistory-to-1800.html

  • In 1627, only French Catholics were allowed to settle in New France.
    In 1627 the Catholic missionaries in New France were concerned that some Huguenots were making their way into Acadia and convinced Cardinal Richelieu ...Read MORE...


  • 1629-1631: Quebec is in English hands, and most settlers return to France.
    The adventurer David Kirke takes Québec for Britain (July 19, 1629).
    fccs.ok.ubc.ca/about/links/resources/canadian-history/prehistory-to-1800.html

  • 1632 - The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye enables France to regain possession of Canada.


  • Population of New France in 1640 - 400

    History of Quebec For Dummies By Eric Bédard

  • 1641 - French and Iroquois Wars began

    www.worldatlas.com/ webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm

  • 1653 - Population of New France - 1,500

    History of Quebec For Dummies By Eric Bédard

  • 1659 - François de Laval arrives in Québec as vicar general of the pope (June).

    fccs.ok.ubc.ca/about/links/resources/canadian-history/prehistory-to-1800.html

  • 1660 - Adam Dollard des Ormeaux and about sixty others withstand an attack by over 500 Iroquois at Long Sault (May). It is traditionally said that the small party fights so well that the Iroquois decide not to attack Montréal.

    fccs.ok.ubc.ca/about/links/resources/canadian-history/prehistory-to-1800.html

  • 1663 - New France became royal province under King Louis XIV

    www.worldatlas.com/ webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm

  • 1663--Population of New France : 2,500, of whom 800 were in Quebec.
    The public debt was about 200,000 livres ; the Customs tariff was raised to 10 per cent ad valoremon all merchandise.

    (Leclercq, Edition 1691, Vol. II., pages 4 & 66.--Boucher, Edition Canadienne, page 61.)

  • In 1663, New France had 68 seigneuries, mostly grouped around Quebec, Trois-Rivieres, and Montreal.
    Until the conquest of 1760, seigneuries were the favored mode of land concession by Ancien Regime France.

    Seen from above, most seigneuries...Read MORE...


  • 1666 - Carignan-Saleires soldiers invaded Iroquois territory, burned villages, destroyed crops

    www.worldatlas.com/ webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm

  • 1666 - The Carignan-Salières regiment destroys five Mohawk villages, eventually leading to peace between the Iroquois and the French.

    fccs.ok.ubc.ca/about/links/resources/canadian-history/prehistory-to-1800.html

  • 1667 - The result of Canada's first census is 3215 non-native inhabitants.

    fccs.ok.ubc.ca/about/links/resources/canadian-history/prehistory-to-1800.html

  • 1668 - The Carignan-Salières regiment is recalled to France, but several hundred choose to remain behind, many in return for local seigneuries.

    fccs.ok.ubc.ca/about/links/resources/canadian-history/prehistory-to-1800.html

  • 1673 - Population of Quebec - 6,705

    History of Quebec For Dummies By Eric Bédard

  • 1674 - Laval becomes the first bishop of Québec.

    fccs.ok.ubc.ca/about/links/resources/canadian-history/prehistory-to-1800.html

  • 1681 - Population of Quebec - 10,077

    History of Quebec For Dummies By Eric Bédard

  • 1685 - King Louis XIV decreed Code Noir (Black Code),ordered all Jews out of French colonial empire; defined slavery rules, restricted activities of free Negroes; forbade any religious activities other than Roman Catholic

    www.worldatlas.com/ webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm

  • 1692 - Population of Quebec - 13,041

    History of Quebec For Dummies By Eric Bédard

  • Québec Province, Canada
    www.freeusandworldmaps.com
  • 1702 - Queen Anne's War between France and Great Britain began

    www.worldatlas.com/ webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm

  • 1706 - Population of Quebec - 18,842

    History of Quebec For Dummies By Eric Bédard

  • 1713 - Treaty of Utrecht ended Queen Anne's War (War of the Spanish Succession)
    Hudson's Bay, Acadia and Newfoundland now all belonged to the English. Cape Breton belonged to the French.
    History of Quebec for Dummies by Eric Bedard, published by John Wiley & Sons, Canada, Ltd.

  • In 1716 (New France), it became a requirement that all soldiers be given a dit name.
    What is most interesting is that in New France a dit name could be passed down from father to son and often was. On the other hand, this was not done ...Read MORE...


  • 1718 - Population of Quebec - 25.971

    History of Quebec For Dummies By Eric Bédard

  • 1727 - Population of Quebec - 34,355

    History of Quebec For Dummies By Eric Bédard

  • 1737 - Population of Quebec - 45,108

    History of Quebec For Dummies By Eric Bédard

  • 1750 - Population of Quebec - 58,100

    History of Quebec For Dummies By Eric Bédard

  • 1754 - Beginning of French and Indian War between Great Britain and France

    Québec a Nation History (Part 8) (www.youtube.com)

  • 1760 - French Forces defeated British during Battle of Sainte-Foy on Plains of Abraham;
    French forces attacked Quebec City, failed to capture city from British; British ships arrived at Quebec City, French army forced back to Montreal;...Read MORE...


  • 1763 - Seven Years War ended with signing of Treaty of Paris; France gave northerly portion of New France to Britain, kept Guadaloupe;
    Chief Pontiac led raids against British trading posts; British Parliament issued Royal Proclamation to rename New France to Province of Quebec

    www.worldatlas.com/ webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm

  • 1775 - Green Mountain Boys, led by Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold, raided Fort Saint-Jean; Second Continental Congress wrote open letter inviting people of Canada to join in Revolution;
    Continental Army invaded Quebec, besieged Fort Saint-Jean; Fort Saint-Jean surrendered; Montreal surrendered to Americans; Green Mountain Boys troops ...Read MORE...


  • 1776 - British, German troops arrived, drove Americans out of province of Quebec

    www.worldatlas.com/ webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm

  • 1792 - First election of Lower Canada held; first parliament of Lower Canada opened

    www.worldatlas.com/ webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm

  • 1804 - Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada voted to abolish slavery

    www.worldatlas.com/ webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm

  • 1812 - War of 1812 - second invasion of Canada by Americans

    www.worldatlas.com/ webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm

  • 1818 - Frontier between British North America, United States established at 49th northern parallel

    www.worldatlas.com/ webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm

  • 1832 - Cholera epidemic killed 6,000; Assembly passed law giving full political rights to Jewish citizens of Lower Canada

    www.worldatlas.com/ webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm

  • 1838 - Robert Nelson, Patriots General, gathered volunteers, Freres chasseurs, sympathetic Americans, launched attack on British in Lower Canada;
    Nelson proclaimed independence of Lower Canada; amnesty given to all prisoners except eight; Freres chasseurs took positions in Beauharnois,...Read MORE...


  • News 1864 - June 29, 1864 - The worst railway disaster in Canada's history killed 99 people and injured 100 more,
    when a train, which had been carrying many German and Polish immigrants, failed to stop at an open bridge (the Beloeil Bridge) and plunged into the...Read MORE...


  • 1867 - New Brunswick and Nova Scotia joined Ontario and Quebec in the new Dominion of Canada; Honourable Sir Narcisse-Fortunat Belleau appointed first lieutenant-governor; Pierre-Joseph-Oliver Chauveau became first premier

    www.worldatlas.com/ webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm

  • Québec Province, Canada
    Montreal - Typical Sleigh
  • 1871--Population of Quebec 1,191,516

    www.statcan.gc.ca

  • 1873
    QUEBEC, a province of the Dominion of Canada, bounded on the N. by Labrador and Hudson's Bay; on the E. by Labrador and the Gulf of St. Lawrence; on...Read MORE...


  • The French-Canadian is a capital labourer,
    slow perhaps, but sure. He is docile and willing, and his light-heartedness gets over all difficulties. " Your merry heart goes all the day, your sad ...Read MORE...


  • Québec Province, Canada
    Old House, Beauport, Que.
  • Québec Province, Canada
    Hotel de Manoir, Berthierville, Quebec
  • 1907 - Part of the Quebec bridge collapsed, killed 75 workmen

    www.worldatlas.com/ webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm

  • 1912 - Quebec Boundaries Extension Act passed, northern boundary extended from Quebec to Hudson Strait

    www.worldatlas.com/ webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm

  • Québec Province, Canada
    Baie-Saint-Paul, Charlevoix, Québec, Canada
    Le Presbytere


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