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flag  History of Québec Province, Canada

Journey back in time to Québec Province, Canada


Visit Québec Province, Canada. Discover its history. Learn about the people who lived there through stories, old newspaper articles, pictures, postcards and ancestry.

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 Québec Province, Canada - Montreal - Typical Sleigh

Québec is the largest province in Canada by area and borders Ontario, New Brunswick and Newfoundland (Labrador was attributed to Newfoundland in 1927 by the British Privy Council). The territory of Québec represents 15.5% of the surface area of Canada and totals 1.5 million km2. This is equal to the size of France, Germany and Spain combined. The province also neighbours on 4 American states: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont and New York.

Despite its impressive size, the territory of Québec today is only a portion of what was once New France. The original boundaries were changed through the ROYAL PROCLAMATION OF 1763, the QUEBEC ACT of 1774, the CONSTITUTIONAL ACT, 1791 and the BRITISH NORTH AMERICA ACT of 1867.

The French North American empire before 1763 was a vast territory including the St Lawrence River valley, the Great Lakes region and territories around the Missouri and Mississippi rivers from the Ohio River valley to the Gulf of Mexico. The JAMES BAY region and the northern part of Québec were officially British territories after the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, half a century before the Conquest of 1760. The word Canada (meaning "village" in Iroquoian), not Québec, was used by the French to refer to the territory of New France that lay along the St Lawrence River. There was a strong sense among the French population of belonging to North America. The inclusion of the vast interior of the continent, reinforced by the fur trade and French exploration, has never completely disappeared from the complex sense of identity of francophone Quebeckers.

The name Québec referred, until 1763 and the Royal Proclamation, to the city of Québec only. The name was inspired by an Algonquian word meaning "where the river narrows." It was the British, not the French, who first used the word Québec in a broader sense.

"Quebec (and other areas of Francophone Canada): French Canadians, and especially the Québécois (or citizens of Quebec, pronounced "keh-beck-wah") have a very strong sense of cultural identity and are very nationalistic. The European influence is strongly felt in Quebec, whose people consider themselves the "defenders of French civilization in North America." Because of their animated good nature, Québécois are sometimes called the "Latins of the North.""

There is MUCH more to discover about Québec Province, Canada. Read on!

Québec Province Nostalgia: Vintage Photos, Ads, and Postcards

Québec Province, Canada

Montreal - Typical Sleigh

Québec Province, Canada


Québec Province, Canada

Old House, Beauport, Que.

Québec Province, Canada

Hotel de Manoir, Berthierville, Quebec

Québec Province, Canada

Baie-Saint-Paul, Charlevoix, Québec, Canada
Le Presbytere

Québec Province, Canada

Visit Quebec

Québec Province, Canada

Ski in Quebec and Lac Beauport

Discover Québec Province: History, News, Travel, and Stories

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  • 1600 - King Henry IV of France grants a fur-trading monopoly in the Gulf of St. Lawrence to a group of French merchants.
  • 1608: Champlain sets up an "Habitation" at Quebec as well as alliances with the Algonquin, Huron and Montagnais tribes for control of the fur trade.

  • 1609 - Champlain supports the Algonquins against the Iroquois at Lake Champlain.
  • The winter of 1608-1609 decimated the group of Frenchmen living in Quebec. By 1611, only 17 men - and no women - inhabited Quebec.

    History of Quebec for Dummies by Eric Bedard, published by John Wiley & Sons, Canada, Ltd.
  • 1611: A European colony is established by Champlain on the Island of Montréal (Ville Marie).

  • 1617: Louis Hébert and his family settle at Quebec (first settlers)

  • 1625: Arrival of the Jesuits in Quebec.
    Jesuits begin missionary work among the Indians in the Québec area. Jean de Brébeuf founds missions in Huronia, near Georgian Bay.
  • In 1627, only French Catholics were allowed to settle in New France.
    In 1627 the Catholic missionaries in New France were concerned that some Huguenots were making their way into Acadia and convinced Cardinal Richelieu to add a clause to the charter of the Company of New France which said that the only people who could settle in New France were "natural-born French Catholics". 2011/ 05/ dit-dite-names.html
  • 1627 - Seigneurial system introduced by King Louis XIV of France, forbade settlement in New France by anyone other than Roman Catholics
    On April 29, 1627, Cardinal Richelieu signed a deed establishing a large company owned by about 100 associates. The official name of the new entity was the Compagnie de la Nouvelle-France... The company's mission was to "populate the said country with Catholic natives of France who, through their example, would dispose these [Aboriginal] nations toward the Christian religion and civil life, even establishing royal authority there." The company would also "draw from the newly discovered said lands advantages in trade for the use of the king's subjects." This amounted to colonizing New France and exploring its wealth.
    History of Quebec for Dummies by Eric Bedard, published by John Wiley & Sons, Canada, Ltd.
  • 1627 - The Company of One Hundred Associates (a.k.a. the Company of New France) is given a fur monopoly and title to all lands claimed by New France (April 29). In exchange, they are to establish a French colony of 4000 by 1643, which they fail to do
  • 1629-1631: Quebec is in English hands, and most settlers return to France.
    The adventurer David Kirke takes Québec for Britain (July 19, 1629).
  • 1632 - The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye enables France to regain possession of Canada.

  • Population of New France in 1640 - 400

    History of Quebec For Dummies By Eric Bédard
  • 1641 - French and Iroquois Wars began webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm

  • 1653 - Population of New France - 1,500

    History of Quebec For Dummies By Eric Bédard
  • 1659 - François de Laval arrives in Québec as vicar general of the pope (June).
  • 1660 - Adam Dollard des Ormeaux and about sixty others withstand an attack by over 500 Iroquois at Long Sault (May). It is traditionally said that the small party fights so well that the Iroquois decide not to attack Montréal.
  • 1663 - New France became royal province under King Louis XIV webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm
  • In 1663, New France had 68 seigneuries, mostly grouped around Quebec, Trois-Rivieres, and Montreal.
    Until the conquest of 1760, seigneuries were the favored mode of land concession by Ancien Regime France.

    Seen from above, most seigneuries resembled long rectangles stretching from the shores of the river. The seigneur had a large area of land but was required to grant censives to newly arrived settlers. After 1711, this duty became a formal obligation.

    These lands were provided free of charge on condition that the habitants farm the land and fulfill duties to the seigneur (annual rent and chores, a portion of harvests, and so on). The seigneur also had responsibilities to his censitaires, in particular, he had to ensure their protection and put a mill at their disposal.
    History of Quebec for Dummies by Eric Bedard, published by John Wiley & Sons, Canada, Ltd.
  • 1663--Population of New France : 2,500, of whom 800 were in Quebec.
    The public debt was about 200,000 livres ; the Customs tariff was raised to 10 per cent ad valoremon all merchandise.

    (Leclercq, Edition 1691, Vol. II., pages 4 & 66.--Boucher, Edition Canadienne, page 61.)
  • Life in New France, 1663-1760
    At the time of New France, and particularly after 1663 when the colony began to thrive, a distinctive way of life worked out in Canada. It still leaves its mark on French Canada today. A glance at the society of New France not only reveals the world of the seventeenth-century colonists but throws light on the life and outlook of the modern French Canadians, who form nearly one-third of the present Canadian population.

    To begin with , life in New France was fashioned on authoritarian lines: that is, power was concentrated at the top of society, and the mass of the colonists were used to obeying authority, not to governing their own lives. This did not necessarily mean an attitude of dependence or meek docility. The people of New France showed their sturdy self- reliance in other ways. Yet in matters of religion, govern- ment, and relations between classes of people, French Canada readily accepted direction from above. There was little of the demand for... Read MORE...

  • 1666 - The Carignan-Salières regiment destroys five Mohawk villages, eventually leading to peace between the Iroquois and the French.
  • 1666 - Carignan-Saleires soldiers invaded Iroquois territory, burned villages, destroyed crops webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm
  • 1667 - The result of Canada's first census is 3215 non-native inhabitants.
  • 1668 - The Carignan-Salières regiment is recalled to France, but several hundred choose to remain behind, many in return for local seigneuries.
  • 1673 - Population of Quebec - 6,705

    History of Quebec For Dummies By Eric Bédard
  • 1674 - Laval becomes the first bishop of Québec.
  • 1681 - Population of Quebec - 10,077

    History of Quebec For Dummies By Eric Bédard
  • 1685 - King Louis XIV decreed Code Noir (Black Code),ordered all Jews out of French colonial empire; defined slavery rules, restricted activities of free Negroes; forbade any religious activities other than Roman Catholic webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm
  • 1692 - Population of Quebec - 13,041

    History of Quebec For Dummies By Eric Bédard
  • 1702 - Queen Anne's War between France and Great Britain began webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm
  • 1706 - Population of Quebec - 18,842

    History of Quebec For Dummies By Eric Bédard
  • 1713 - Treaty of Utrecht ended Queen Anne's War (War of the Spanish Succession)
    Hudson's Bay, Acadia and Newfoundland now all belonged to the English. Cape Breton belonged to the French.
    History of Quebec for Dummies by Eric Bedard, published by John Wiley & Sons, Canada, Ltd.
  • In 1716 (New France), it became a requirement that all soldiers be given a dit name.
    What is most interesting is that in New France a dit name could be passed down from father to son and often was. On the other hand, this was not done in France. 2011/ 05/ dit-dite-names.html
  • 1718 - Population of Quebec - 25.971

    History of Quebec For Dummies By Eric Bédard
  • 1727 - Population of Quebec - 34,355

    History of Quebec For Dummies By Eric Bédard
  • 1737 - Population of Quebec - 45,108

    History of Quebec For Dummies By Eric Bédard
  • 1750 - Population of Quebec - 58,100

    History of Quebec For Dummies By Eric Bédard
  • 1754 - Beginning of French and Indian War between Great Britain and France

    Québec a Nation History (Part 8) (
  • 1760 - French Forces defeated British during Battle of Sainte-Foy on Plains of Abraham;
    French forces attacked Quebec City, failed to capture city from British; British ships arrived at Quebec City, French army forced back to Montreal; Governor Vaudreuil surrendered to British army at Montreal. webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm
  • 1763 - Seven Years War ended with signing of Treaty of Paris; France gave northerly portion of New France to Britain, kept Guadaloupe;
    Chief Pontiac led raids against British trading posts; British Parliament issued Royal Proclamation to rename New France to Province of Quebec webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm
  • 1775 - Green Mountain Boys, led by Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold, raided Fort Saint-Jean; Second Continental Congress wrote open letter inviting people of Canada to join in Revolution;
    Continental Army invaded Quebec, besieged Fort Saint-Jean; Fort Saint-Jean surrendered; Montreal surrendered to Americans; Green Mountain Boys troops defeated at Quebec City webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm
  • 1776 - British, German troops arrived, drove Americans out of province of Quebec webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm
  • 1791: The old Province of Quebec was divided into two separate colonies, Lower Canada and Upper Canada.
  • 1792 - First election of Lower Canada held; first parliament of Lower Canada opened webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm
  • 1804 - Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada voted to abolish slavery webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm
  • 1812 - War of 1812 - second invasion of Canada by Americans webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm
  • 1818 - Frontier between British North America, United States established at 49th northern parallel webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm
  • 1832 - Cholera epidemic killed 6,000; Assembly passed law giving full political rights to Jewish citizens of Lower Canada webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm
  • 1838 - Robert Nelson, Patriots General, gathered volunteers, Freres chasseurs, sympathetic Americans, launched attack on British in Lower Canada;
    Nelson proclaimed independence of Lower Canada; amnesty given to all prisoners except eight; Freres chasseurs took positions in Beauharnois, Sainte-Martine, Saint-Mathias; British won Battle of Lacolle; last battle of the Lower Canada Rebellion occurred at Battle of Odelltown webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm
  • News  1864 - June 29, 1864 - The worst railway disaster in Canada's history killed 99 people and injured 100 more,
    when a train, which had been carrying many German and Polish immigrants, failed to stop at an open bridge (the Beloeil Bridge) and plunged into the the Richelieu River near Quebec.
    June 29, 1864
  • 1867 - New Brunswick and Nova Scotia joined Ontario and Quebec in the new Dominion of Canada; Honourable Sir Narcisse-Fortunat Belleau appointed first lieutenant-governor; Pierre-Joseph-Oliver Chauveau became first premier webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm
  • 1871--Population of Quebec 1,191,516
  • 1873
    QUEBEC, a province of the Dominion of Canada, bounded on the N. by Labrador and Hudson's Bay; on the E. by Labrador and the Gulf of St. Lawrence; on the S by Baie des Chaleurs, New Brunswick and the State of Maine; on the S.E by the States of New Hampshire, Vermont and New York; and on the S.W by the River Ottawa and the Province of Ontario. Length from Lake Temiscaminque to Anse au Blanc Sablon, in the Straits of Belle Isle, about 1,000 miles due east and west course, and from the above named lake to Cape Gaspe, about 700 miles; breadth about 300 miles The total territorial superficies comprises, land and inland waters, 123,747,140 acres, or 193.355 square statute miles, or 500,679 square kilometers. The surface of the country is varied and grand, consisting of boundless forests, magnificent rivers and lakes, extensive prairies, bold, rocky heights and foaming cataracts, diversified by cultivated fields, pretty villages and settlements, some stretching up along mountains, fertile... Read MORE...

  • The French-Canadian is a capital labourer,
    slow perhaps, but sure. He is docile and willing, and his light-heartedness gets over all difficulties. " Your merry heart goes all the day, your sad one tires in a mile-o," is his motto.
    Lucius O'Brien - Picturesque Canada (1882–84); Page 75
  • 1907 - Part of the Quebec bridge collapsed, killed 75 workmen webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm
  • 1912 - Quebec Boundaries Extension Act passed, northern boundary extended from Quebec to Hudson Strait webimage/ countrys/ namerica/ province/ pqztimeln.htm
  • 1935 - The snowmobile was invented by Joseph Bombardier (Quebec)
    Joseph Bombardier, born in the province of Quebec, was the first to design a snowmobile as we know it today. Later, he released the model name Ski-doo with his company, which is nowadays the common name in Quebec to name a snowmobile.

  • 2023 - Whether you're interested in outdoor adventures, cultural experiences, or delicious cuisine, Québec has something for everyone. Here's a list of places to go and things to do in Québec Province:
    1. Old Québec (Vieux-Québec): Start your journey in the heart of Québec City, a UNESCO World Heritage site. Explore the cobblestone streets of Old Québec, visit the iconic Château Frontenac, and admire the well-preserved 17th-century architecture.

    2. Montmorency Falls: Just outside Québec City, you'll find Montmorency Falls, which are higher than Niagara Falls. Take a cable car ride to the top for breathtaking views or hike around the park's trails.

    3. Parc national de la Jacques-Cartier: This stunning national park is known for its deep valleys and the meandering Jacques-Cartier River. Hiking, canoeing, and wildlife watching are popular activities here.

    4. Mont Tremblant: A year-round destination, Mont Tremblant offers skiing and snowboarding in the winter and hiking, biking, and golfing in the summer. The charming pedestrian village is perfect for shopping and dining.

    5. Charlevoix: Explore the picturesque Charlevoix region, known for its art galleries, rolling hills,... Read MORE...

  • 2023 - Here's a list of places to go and things to do in Québec Province:
    Old Québec City: Start your journey in the charming Old Town of Québec City, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Explore its cobblestone streets, visit iconic landmarks like Château Frontenac, and immerse yourself in its European ambiance.

    Montreal: Québec's largest city, Montreal, is a vibrant and diverse metropolis. Explore the historic Old Montreal, enjoy world-class dining, and visit the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts. Don't forget to try the famous Montreal-style bagels and poutine.

    Québec Winter Carnival: If you visit in the winter, don't miss the Québec Winter Carnival, one of the world's largest winter festivals. It's filled with ice sculptures, snow slides, parades, and traditional Québécois food.

    Mont Tremblant: This resort town is a haven for outdoor enthusiasts year-round. In the winter, it's a popular ski destination, and in the summer, you can hike, bike, or simply relax by the lake.

    Gaspé Peninsula: Explore the stunning Gaspé Peninsula with its rugged coastline,... Read MORE...

Discover Your Roots: Québec Province Ancestry

Genealogy Resources for Québec Province

Laforest, Thomas J., Our French Canadian Ancestors, Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupre, 1984 Quebec Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection) [database on-line]. Original data: Gabriel Drouin, comp. Drouin Collection. Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Institut Généalogique Drouin.

The Carignan-Salières Regiment, June-Sept 1665, Quebec, Canada

La Société des Filles du roi et soldats du Carignan

Captains of militia of the district of Quebec during the invasion of 1776

The first census of New France (1666)

1681 Census - New France

Le Programme de recherche en démographie historique - Univeriste de Montreal

Filles a Marier 1634-1662

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Updated: 9/18/2023 7:34:33 PM

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