Albemarle County, Virginia, USA - 1854 - Albemarle county
Albemarle, a county in the E. central part of Virginia, has an area of about 700 square miles. The James river forms its southern boundary, and it is drained by the Kivanna and Hardware rivers, affluents of the James, which rise by several small branches in the W. part of the country. The Blue Ridge forms its N. W. boundary, and a ridge called South-west Mountain, or Carter's Mountain, extends across the county in a N. E. and, S. W. direction. The surface is beautifully diversified, and the scenery in all parts of the county is exceedingly picturesque. The soil of the valleys and river bottoms is remark ably fertile, and a large portion of the high lands is susceptible of cultivation. Indian corn, wheat, oats, hay, tobacco, wool, and butter are the staples. In 1850 it produced 798,354 bushels of corn; 278,575 of wheat, 191,549 of oats; 4328 tons of hay; 1,456,800 pounds of tobacco, and 164,882 pounds of butter. The produce of corn was greater than that of any other county in the state. It contained in that year 44 churches, and 4 newspaper establishments. There were 560 pupils attending public schools, and 465 at tending academies and other schools. The Kivanna river is navigable in the eastern part of the county, which is intersected by the Central railroad of Virginia, lately constructed, while the James River Canal passes along the south border. Albemarle is among the most populous and highly cultivated counties of Virginia, and is distinguished as the native place of Thomas Jefferson, third President of the United States, whose residence, Monticello, is beautifully situated 8 miles S. E. from Charlottesville, commanding a magnificent view of the distant mountains, and of the Rivanna river, which flows in the immediate vicinity. Capital, Charlottesville. Population, 25,800, of whom 12,462 were free, and 13,338 slaves.
A New and Complete Gazetteer of the United States: Giving a Full and Comprehensive Review of the Present Condition, Industry, and Resources of the American Confederacy ... Thomas Baldwin (of Philadelphia.) Joseph Thomas January 1, 1854 Philadelphia : Lippincott, Grambo & Company 1854.
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