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Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada
Saint John



Saint John, NB, incorporated as a city in 1785, population 67 575 (2016c),70 063 (2011c), 68 043 (2006c). The City of Saint John, the second largest city in New Brunswick, is located at the mouth of the SAINT JOHN RIVER on the Bay of FUNDY.

Saint John's earliest known inhabitants were the MI'KMAQ and later the MALISEET. Samuel de CHAMPLAIN arrived at Saint John Harbour on 24 June 1604 - the feast of St John the Baptist - and gave the river its name. No permanent settlement was attempted until 1630 when Charles de LA TOUR constructed a fort (Fort La Tour) at the site of present-day Saint John.

In 1701 the newly appointed French governor of ACADIA, Jacques-François de Brouillan, destroyed the fort and consolidated his forces across the bay at PORT-ROYAL. Not until the 1730s did Acadians from other parts of the Bay of Fundy begin resettling along the river.

By 1749 ownership of the territory surrounding Saint John was in dispute between England and France, and in the ensuing struggle the Acadian deportations were carried out from the mid-1750s to the early 1760s. The old French fort was rebuilt by the English in 1758 and renamed Fort Frederick, but it was destroyed in 1775 by the Americans. Finally, in 1778, the English erected Fort Howe on a hill above Portland Point.

The beginnings of permanent English settlement occurred in the 1760s with the arrival from Boston of James Simonds and James White, each of whom established dwellings at the foot of present-day Fort Howe Hill. These pre-Loyalist 18th-century merchants traded with the native people and the garrison, and formed ties with the British at Halifax.

In 1783 this harbour community greatly expanded when LOYALISTS settled on the east side of the harbour in Parr Town, on the west side in Carleton and on the north side in Portland. In 1785 Carleton and Parr Town were incorporated, taking the name Saint John - the first incorporated city in what is now Canada. NEW BRUNSWICK was made a separate colony in 1784 and Saint John served briefly as the provincial capital before the capital was moved upriver to FREDERICTON.



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Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada

Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada

Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada

Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada

Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada

Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada

Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada