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Manchester, England - 1906


Manchester, a city, municipal, parliamentary, and county borough, and inland port of England, within the territorial limits of Lancashire, on the Irwell, a tributary of the Mersey, here joined by the Medlock and the Irk, 164 miles NNW. of London. Manchester proper lies on the left bank of the Irwell, but the borough of Salford on the opposite side is practically a portion of the city. The vast manufacturing industries are rapidly being relegated to the suburbs, the main portion of the city being now devoted to trade and finance. The business streets of Manchester present a stately architectural appearance. The principal ecclesiastical buildings are the cathedral, dating mainly from the early part of the fifteenth century, and the Catholic church of the Holy Name. St. John's Catholic cathedral is located at Salford. The secular edifices of most interest are the Gothic town-hall, one of the most superb modern buildings in England, with a tower 260 feet in height, the Royal Infirmary, Chatham College, the new buildings of Victoria University, the Royal Institution, the Free Trade Hall, containing an immense auditorium, the Assise Courts, and the Exchange, with a Corinthian portico and a campanile. Among the public monuments are a memorial to Prince Albert in Albert Square, a bronse statue of Richard Cobden in St. Anne's Square, and statues of Queen Victoria and Cromwell. At the head of the educational institutions of Manchester is Victoria University (formerly Owens College), the number of whose students is about 1150, including about 200 women. Other educational institutions are an ancient grammar-school, of which De Quincey was an alumnus, Chetham College or Hospital, a Blue Coat school, with what is reputed to be the oldest free library in Europe (containing 40,000 volumes), the public library, with 300,000 volumes, Ryland's Library, containing 70,000 volumes, the Manchester Art Museum, the Royal Manchester College of Music, and technical and industrial schools, for the most part under the direction of the municipality. Manchester has an extensive system of parks, among which are Heaton Park, some miles from the city, and Peel and Whitworth parks, both in Salford. The municipality of Manchester has long been noted for its progressiveness. The city owns the oldest municipal gas-works in the world. Among the municipal activities may be mentioned the erection of dwellings for workingmen and the establishment of great public bathing-places. The water-supply of Manchester is in part drawn from Lake Thirlmere, distant about 100 miles. In 1894 a gigantic undertaking was brought to completion in the opening of the Manchester Ship Canal connecting Manchester with the Mersey at Eastham, and thus making of the city a port accessible to the largest ocean steamers. This magnificent artificial water-way, constructed at a cost of $75,000,000, is 35} miles in length and 26 feet in depth, and is wider than the Suez Canal. It has 5 locks. Manchester is the greatest industrial town of England and the centre of the cotton manufacture of the kingdom. In addition to the establishments connected with the textile industry there are manufactories of every description, including machine-shops, iron-, steel- and chemical-works, and paper-mills. Manchester returns 6 and Salford 3 members to parliament. The city is noted as the cradle of the Anti- Corn Law and Free Trade movements in England. Manchester grew to be a flourishing little town in the Middle Ages. An influx of immigrants from the Nether lands in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries promoted its prosperity. At the beginning of the eighteenth century it had still only about 10,000 inhabitants. By 1801 the population had risen to 75,000. In 1830 the Manchester and Liverpool railway, the first railway in which passenger transportation on a large scale was inaugurated, was opened for traffic. With the rapid development of the cotton- industry the population grew at an extraordinary rate. In 1851 it amounted to 303,000, in 1891 it had reached 505,368, and in 1901 it was 543,872. The population of Salford in 1901 was 220,956.

Lippincott's New Gazetteer: A Complete Pronouncing Gazetteer Or Geographical Dictionary of the World, Containing the Most Recent and Authentic Information Respecting the Countries, Cities, Towns ... in Every Portion of the Globe Publisher J.B. Lippincott Company, 1906

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Manchester, England

Manchester, England

Manchester, England

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