Brooklyn, a former city of Kings co., N.Y., since Jan. 1, 1898, a borough of the city of New York, situated at the W. end of Long Island. Lat. of the navy-yard, 40° 41' 30" N. j Lon. 73° 59' 30" W. The borough is coextensive with Kings county. A strait called the East River, in its narrowest part about a half mile in width and connecting Long Island Sound with the upper New York Bay, separates Brooklyn from Manhattan Island, while the navigable Newtown Creek separates it from Long Island City (now a part of Queens borough of the city of New York) on the N. and NE. The northern part of Brooklyn consists of the former city of Williamsburg and the town of Greenpoint. In the west central part of the city is a debouchment of the East River known as Wallabout Bay, on the E. and S. shores of which is located the United States navy-yard. Brooklyn covers an area of about 65 sq. m., the most distinctive topographic feature of which is constituted by the Brooklyn or Columbia Heights, which rise abruptly above the shore of the East River to an elevation of 70-100 feet, and on which are located many of the most elegant mansions, residences, and club-houses (Hamilton, Jefferson, Brooklyn) of the city. The most fashionable streets of the Heights are Clinton, Remsen, Montague, and Pierrepont. The principal business street of Brooklyn is Fulton Street, which terminates near the great Brooklyn Bridge, which unites the borough with the lower part of New York city proper. Near the extreme southern end of the city, situated upon a high ridge and overlooking Gowanus Bay, New York Bay, and New York city, with views of Jersey City and Staten Island, is the famed Greenwood Cemetery covering 475 acres ; while on the same ridge is situated Prospect Park, covering 520 acres, which, with the magnificent boulevards connected with it (forming a continuous drive to the beach at Coney Island) and the handsome streets adjoining, forms the most attractive portion of the borough. Washington or Fort Green Park, in the older section of Brooklyn, is a charming pleasure-ground. In the district of East New York is Ridgewood Reservoir, from which Brooklyn receives its main supply of water. Numerous lines of steam ferry-boats connect the various sections of Brooklyn with New York proper, and other lines connect it with Jersey City. The East River Suspension Bridge, commonly known as the Brooklyn Bridge, was opened May 24, 1883, and gives accommodation to railway- traffic as well as foot-passage and carriages. It has a total length of 5887 feet, with a central span of 1595 feet and a breadth of 85 feet. The height above the water is 135 feet. The total cost of construction, involved in a period of 13 years (1870-33), was about $15,000,000. Another suspension bridge to unite New York with Brooklyn, about 1 mile to the NE. of the Brooklyn Bridge, was begun in 1897, and opened in 1904. Its dimensions are much larger than those of the older bridge, there being accommodations for 6 railway tracks, in addition to the carriage-ways and walks. A third bridge between these two is now (1905) in course of construction, and the East River is being tunnelled at a great depth. Brooklyn is the terminus of branches of the main Long Island railway system, connecting it with Greenport and Sag Harbor and all the principal points on Long Island. The system of street and suburban railways, including several lines of elevated roads, is very extensive. Freight-cars are also brought to the Brooklyn docks and warehouses by floats and steam-tugs, great numbers of which are employed in this business.
The Atlantic Dock, on Buttermilk Channel, opposite Governor's Island and 1 mile S. of Fulton Ferry, and the Erie and Brooklyn Basins, all in South Brooklyn, are among the most extensive works of the kind in the United States, and are lined with immense storehouses for grain and other freight. The Atlantic Dock or Basins, erected by a company incorporated in 1840, embraces within its piers 40.86 acres. The Erie and Brooklyn Basins have areas respectively of 60 and 40 acres. The United States navy-yard occupies about 45 acres of ground. It is the chief naval station of the United States, and employs over 2000 men. Associated with it are two dry-docks, having lengths of 465 feet and 307 feet respectively. Near the navy-yard is the huge Wallabout Market, erected of brick in the Dutch style. The manufacturing interests of Brooklyn are large and varied. The refining of sugar and petroleum, the milling of coffee and spices, ship-building, meat-packing, and the storage of freight are great industries. There are numerous large chemical-works, and factories for making glass, clothing, caps, carpets, cordage, paints, linseed oil, oil-cloth, pharmaceutical preparations, metallic wares, tobacco, cigars, castings, steam-boilers, hats, wire, lace, buttons, paper, and felt goods.
Among the public buildings and institutions are the court house, the old city-hall, the new borough hall, Academy of Music, with a seating capacity of 2400, Academy of Design, Brooklyn Library (containing 160,000 volumes), Pratt Library and Institute (one of the best-equipped technical institutions of the country, attended by upward of 3000 students), Long Island Historical Society (with a library of 70,000 volumes), Packer Collegiate Institute (female), Polytechnic Institute, and the Brooklyn Institute. The last-named, with a building about 425 feet square, occupies a site in Prospect Park, and contains 25 departments devoted to the study of the arts and sciences. The charitable institutions are very numerous. Brooklyn has upward of 450 ecclesiastical edifices, and has frequently been designated the "City of Churohes." Its most famous church, and one that is perhaps best known throughout the whole United States, is Plymouth Church. On Aug. 27, 1776, the battle of Long Island, so disastrous to the American forces, was fought upon ground now within the limits of Prospect Park ; and at Wallabout Bay, during the Revolutionary War, were stationed the English prison-ships, in which it is said nearly 12,000 Americans perished from close confinement and other ill-treatment. The King's Highway, the road by which the British marched from Gravosend Bay, near the suburban town of Bensonburst, is now a favorite driveway. Brooklyn was incorporated in the year 1646 by the authorities of New Amsterdam, and named Breukelen, from a town of the same name in the Netherlands. It was incorporated as a village in 1816, and as a city, with the same area, 6 miles long and 4 miles wide, in 1834. In 1855, Brooklyn, Williamsburg, and Bushwiok were united under one government. In 1894 the city was made coextensive with Kings county, and in Jan., 1898, united with the city of New York to constitute the borough of Brooklyn. The number of its inhabitants in 1810 was 4402 ; in 1820, 7175 ; in 1830, 15,395 ; in 1840, 36,233 ; in 1850, 96,838 ; in 1860, 266,661 ; in 1870, 396,099 ; in 1880, 566,663; in 1890, 806,- 343; in 1900, 1,166,582.
Lippincotts New Gazetteer: A Complete Pronouncing Gazetteer Or Geographical Dictionary of the World, Containing the Most Recent and Authentic Information Respecting the Countries, Cities, Towns, Resorts, Islands, Rivers, Mountains, Seas, Lakes, Etc., in Every Portion of the Globe, Part 1 Angelo Heilprin Louis Heilprin - January 1, 1916 J.B. Lippincott - Publisher
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