Providence, a city, port of entry, capital of the state of Rhode Island, and the county seat of Providence co., is situated at the head of navigation on Narragansett Bay, where the Seekonk (or Blackstone) River joins the narrow arm of the bay called the Providence River, 44 miles SW. of Boston, Mass., on the New York, New Haven and Hart ford R. It is the second city of New England in population, wealth, and importance. Providence is noted chiefly for its manufacturing industries. It was at one time an important centre of foreign commerce, but this has materially declined, while its domestic trade has steadily increased. Among its more important manufactures are those of silver-ware, jewelry, tools, steam-engines, locomotives, screws, fire-arms, stoves, gymnastic apparatus, bob bins and shuttles, cotton and woollen goods, shoe- and cor set-laces, webbing, etc. Other industries are dyeing and bleaching, metal-refining, slaughtering and meat-packing, and brewing. The manufacturing industries are located largely along the bunks of the Woonaaquatucket and Mo- shassuck. The city is irregularly laid out, the site being uneven. The most noted public buildings are the city-hall (in front of which is a Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument), state-house (completed in 1898), government building, Union Railway Station (1897), public library (opened in 1898 and containing over 100,000 volumes), county court house, Rhode Island Hospital, Athenaeum (with a library of about 70,000 volumes), Roman Catholic cathedral, Dexter Asylum, Butler Hospital, and Arcade, the last a business passage-way, 225 feet long, connecting Westminster and Weybosset Streets. Foremost among the educational institutions is Brown University, with handsome buildings, founded in 1784, and having an attendance in 1903-04 of 935 students. With it are associated museums of zoology and anthropology and botany, a museum of fine arts, the Ladd Observatory (lat. 41° 50' 16" N. ; lon. 71° 24' 0" W.), and a university library of 150,000 volumes and 50,000 pamphlet*. Other educational institutions are the Friends' School (dating from 1818), Academy of the Sacred Heart, La Salle Academy, St. Francis Xavier's Academy, Rhode Island Historical Society (with a library of 20,000 volumes), and the Franklin Lyceum. At the S. end of the city is the Roger Williams Park, containing a statue of Roger Williams, whose first landing was at What Cheer Rock, on the Seekonk River. Providence was settled by Roger Williams in 1636. It received its city charter in 1832. Pop. in 1840, 23,172; in 1850, 41,513; in 1860, 50,666; in 1870, 68,904; in 1880, 104,857; in 1890, 132,146; in 1900, 175,597.
Lippincott's New Gazetteer: A Complete Pronouncing Gazetteer Or Geographical Dictionary of the World, Containing the Most Recent and Authentic Information Respecting the Countries, Cities, Towns ... in Every Portion of the Globe Publisher J.B. Lippincott Company, 1906
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