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Filles du Roi (King's Daughters)


Between 1663 and 1673, 768 Filles du Roi or "King’s Daughters" emigrated to New France under the sponsorship of the French government as part of the overall strategy of strengthening the colony until it could stand on its own without economic and military dependence on France.

In 1663, the King took over direct control of the government of New France and initiated an organized system of recruiting and transporting marriageable women to the colony. On September 22, 1663, thirty-six girls –the first group of Filles du Roi– arrived in Québec.

The recruiting of Filles du Roi took place largely in Paris, Rouen and other northern cities by merchants and ship outfitters. A screening process required each girl to present her birth certificate and a recommendation from her parish priest or local magistrate stating that she was free to marry. It was necessary that the girls be of appropriate age for giving birth and that "they be healthy and strong for country work, or that they at least have some aptitude for household chores."

The cost of sending each Fille du Roi to New France was 100 livres: 10 for the recruitment, 30 for clothing and 60 for the crossing itself. Upon arrival, the Filles received suitable clothing and some provisions.

All of the Filles du Roi first landed at Québec City where 560 remained, with 133 being sent to Montréal and 75 to Trois-Rivières.

When selecting a Fille du Roi, the suitor looked beyond outward appearances and considered the practical attributes of a bride that would be adapted or disposed to the rigors of the colony. The preference seems to have been for peasant girls because they were healthy and industrious, as opposed to city girls who were often considered lightheaded and lazy.

Every Fille du Roi had the right to refuse any marriage offer that was presented. In order to make an informed decision to accept a would-be husband, the girls asked questions about the suitor’s home, finances, land and profession. Having a home of one’s own was one of the most important considerations for a Fille du Roi.

In addition to any dowry of goods that the bride may have brought with her from France, each couple was given an assortment of livestock and goods to start them off in married life: a pair of chickens and pigs, an ox, a cow and two barrels of salted meat. The King’s Gift of 50 livres is believed to have been a customary addition to the dowry, but only 250 out of 606 known marriage contracts make reference to an additional dowry given by the King. Once married, there was an incentive to have large families. A yearly pension of 300 livres was granted to families with ten children, rising to 400 livres for 12 children and more for larger families.

In September 1673 the last shipment of Filles du Roi arrived from France, and the program ended. The population of New France had risen to 6,700 people, an increase of 168% in the eleven years since the program had begun.

Source: Peter J. Gagné, King’s Daughters and Founding Mothers: The Filles du Roi, 1663-1673, (Pawtucket, RI: Quinton Publications, 2001)




Histoire du Québec 6 - Les Filles du Roi (in French) (www.youtube.com)


L
Barbe Lefebvre dite Lacroix (19 March 1634, Rouen, France - 30 June 1701, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Françoise LeFrancois (abt. 1648, , France - 10 June 1699, Québec, Québec, Canada (Quebec City))
Jeanne Legendre (abt. 1636, , France - 1 March 1714, Grondines, Québec, Canada (Saint-Charles-des-Grondines))
Antoinette Legrand (abt. 1651, , France - 21 November 1701, Boucherville, Québec, Canada (Sainte-Famille-de-Boucherville))
Nicole Legrand (abt. 1648, Paris, France - 5 October 1713, Saint-Laurent-de-l'Île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada)
Madeleine Leguay (7 December 1636, Rouen, France - 21 December 1708, Neuville, Portneuf, Québec, Canada (Saint-François-de-Sales))
Madeleine Leguay (11 July 1642, Paris, France - abr. 1690, , Québec Province, Canada (Quebec))
Marie Lelong (abt. 1648, , France - 14 December 1687, La Prairie, Québec, Canada (St-Philippe) (St-Jean-François-Régis))
Catherine Leloup (28 October 1649, , France - 14 November 1734, Trois-Rivières, Québec, Canada )
Marie Lemaire (1648, , France - bef. 1681, Repentigny, Québec, Canada (La Purification-de-Repentigny))
Marguerite Lemerle d'Aupré (1650, Paris, France - , )
Catherine Lemesle (abt. 1646, , France - , , Québec Province, Canada (Quebec))
Françoise Lemoine (abt. 1644, , France - 10 November 1728, Saint-François-du-Lac, Québec, Canada)
Marie-Antoinette Lenoir dite Pirois (abt. 1645, Paris, France - , )
Constance Lepage (11 June 1645, , France - 18 August 1688, Saint-François-de-l'Île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada)
Anne Leper (abt. 1647, , France - 29 January 1732, La Prairie, Québec, Canada (St-Philippe) (St-Jean-François-Régis))
Anne Lépine (16 February 1637, La Rochelle, Charente-Maritime, Poitou-Charentes, France - 10 February 1711, Québec, Québec, Canada (Quebec City))
Élisabeth Lequin (abt. 1648, Paris, France - 12 February 1700, Neuville, Portneuf, Québec, Canada (Saint-François-de-Sales))
Catherine Leroux (1653, , France - 3 May 1728, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Marie Leroux (abt. 1645, Rouen, France - 4 May 1717, Berthierville, Québec, Canada (Berthier-en-Haut) (Ste-Genevieve-de-Berthier))
Marie Lespérence (abt. 1631, , France - , )
Marguerite Levaigneur (abt. 1650, Rouen, France - aft. 25 December 1685, Varennes, Québec, Canada (Sainte-Anne-de-Varennes))
Anne Loiseau (abt. 1636, , France - , , Québec Province, Canada (Quebec))
Françoise Loiseau (abt. 1638, , France - 28 October 1728, Contrecœur, Québec, Canada (Sainte-Trinité-de-Contrecoeur))
Etiennette Loret (abt. 1649, Paris, France - 29 March 1733, Boucherville, Québec, Canada (Sainte-Famille-de-Boucherville))
Pérette Loriot (abt. 1654, , France - 13 November 1730, Berthier-sur-Mer, Québec, Canada (Berthier-en-Bas) (Berthier))
Catherine Louvet (abt. 1649, Rouen, France - 31 May 1715, Québec, Québec, Canada (Quebec City))

M
Anne Mabille (1645, , France - 31 July 1702, Saint-Laurent-de-l'Île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada)
Anne Magnan (abt. 1651, Paris, France - 20 December 1713, Québec, Québec, Canada (Quebec City))
Marie Magnier (abt. 1648, , France - 5 December 1723, Saint-François-de-l'Île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada)
Marie Major (26 February 1637, , France - 8 December 1689, Québec, Québec, Canada (Quebec City))
Jeanne Mansion (1649, , France - 9 July 1728, Saint-Laurent, Montréal, Québec, Canada)
Elisabeth Marchand (abt. 1650, Paris, France - , )
Marie Marchessault (22 April 1638, , France - , )
Madeleine Marechal (abt. 1652, , France - 3 July 1684, , Québec Province, Canada (Quebec))
Marguerite Marechal dite Dubois (abt. 1636, , France - 14 March 1698, Québec, Québec, Canada (Quebec City))
Denise Marier (Marié) (1654, Paris, France - 31 August 1720, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Marie Martin (abt. 1641, , France - 14 July 1680, Boucherville, Québec, Canada (Sainte-Famille-de-Boucherville))
Marie Martin (abt. 1650, La Rochelle, Charente-Maritime, Poitou-Charentes, France - 10 July 1729, Québec, Québec, Canada (Quebec City))
Marie-Louise Masseron (Merceron) (abt. 1648, Paris, France - 23 November 1705, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Anne Masson (abt. 1638, , France - 13 September 1710, Québec, Québec, Canada (Quebec City))
Charlotte Maurice (Morin) (abt. 1646, , France - 1 March 1714, Sorel, Québec, Canada)
Louise Menacier (abt. 1637, , France - 15 April 1687, Lauzon, Lévis, Québec, Canada (Saint-Joseph-de-la-Pointe-de-Lévy))
Barbe Ménard (abt. 1649, La Rochelle, Charente-Maritime, Poitou-Charentes, France - 16 June 1685, Sainte-Famille-de-l'île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada)
Marie-Anne Mercier (abt. 1657, , France - 6 December 1687, Champlain, Québec, Canada (Notre-Dame-de-la-Visitation))
Agathe Merlin (abt. 1647, , France - 4 December 1728, Neuville, Portneuf, Québec, Canada (Saint-François-de-Sales))
Marie Mesure (abt. 1645, , France - 26 November 1708, Sainte-Famille-de-l'île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada)
Marie-Anne Metru (abt. 1656, , France - 26 March 1731, Lauzon, Lévis, Québec, Canada (Saint-Joseph-de-la-Pointe-de-Lévy))
Antoinette Meunier (1635, , France - 25 February 1697, Grondines, Québec, Canada (Saint-Charles-des-Grondines))
Marie Meunier (abt. 1642, , France - , )
Marie Meunier (abt. 1644, , France - 28 August 1698, Charlesbourg, Québec, Québec, Canada (Bourg Royal) (Saint-Charles-Borromée))
Marie-Louise Michaud (abt. 1650, , France - bef. 02 June 1686, Berthierville, Québec, Canada (Berthier-en-Haut) (Ste-Genevieve-de-Berthier))
Anne Michel (abt. 1645, , France - 29 November 1724, Contrecœur, Québec, Canada (Sainte-Trinité-de-Contrecoeur))
Françoise Michel (Michaud) (18 August 1649, , France - , )
Françoise Millot (abt. 1648, , France - 5 April 1703, Neuville, Portneuf, Québec, Canada (Saint-François-de-Sales))
Françoise Moisan (abt. 1638, , France - 2 November 1718, Contrecœur, Québec, Canada (Sainte-Trinité-de-Contrecoeur))
Catherine Moitie (14 June 1649, La Rochelle, Charente-Maritime, Poitou-Charentes, France - 21 October 1727, Boucherville, Québec, Canada (Sainte-Famille-de-Boucherville))
Marguerite-Marie Moitie (29 January 1646, La Rochelle, Charente-Maritime, Poitou-Charentes, France - 8 June 1701, Sainte-Famille-de-l'île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada)
Marie Moitié (abt. 1649, Paris, France - 20 December 1727, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Françoise Monvoisin (abt. 1635, , France - 9 November 1709, Saint-Laurent-de-l'Île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada)
Marguerite Moreau (30 April 1649, , France - 20 October 1690, Québec, Québec, Canada (Quebec City))
Marguerite-Françoise Moreau (abt. 1651, Paris, France - 16 October 1718, La Prairie, Québec, Canada (St-Philippe) (St-Jean-François-Régis))
Marie Morin (1643, Champagne, France - 27 January 1707, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Marie Morin (abt. 1645, Paris, France - 9 February 1729, Québec, Québec, Canada (Quebec City))
Eleonore Mouillard (abt. 1656, , France - 2 December 1739, Deschambault, Québec, Canada (Saint-Joseph-de-Deschambault))
Marie Mullois (30 October 1643, , France - 29 November 1705, Saint-Ours, Québec, Canada (Immaculée-Conception))

N
Marguerite Navarre (26 December 1641, La Rochelle, Charente-Maritime, Poitou-Charentes, France - 12 March 1725, Charlesbourg, Québec, Québec, Canada (Bourg Royal) (Saint-Charles-Borromée))
Madeleine Niel (3 June 1652, Rouen, France - 15 August 1732, Laval, Québec, Canada (Saint François-de-Sales-de-l'Ile-Jésus))
Marie-Madeleine Normand (29 August 1646, , France - 27 April 1690, Montmagny, Québec, Canada (Saint-Thomas) (Notre-Dame-du-Rosaire))

O
Agnès Olivier (abt. 1651, Paris, France - 6 April 1730, Saint-Laurent-de-l'Île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada)
Madeleine Olivier (1636, , France - 21 April 1690, Saint-Laurent-de-l'Île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada)
Michelle Ouinville (abt. 1640, , France - 20 November 1700, Québec, Québec, Canada (Quebec City))

P
Marguerite Paquet (Pasquier) (7 April 1645, Poitiers, France - , , Québec Province, Canada (Quebec))
Françoise Paris (abt. 1651, , France - 16 March 1728, Sorel, Québec, Canada)
Catherine Paule (abt. 1645, , France - 16 April 1721, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Marie Paviot (abt. 1644, , France - 11 April 1678, , Québec Province, Canada (Quebec))
Marie-Marthe Payan (1653, Paris, France - 20 April 1724, Cap-Santé, Québec, Canada (Sainte-Famille-du-Cap-Sante))
Marie Péchina (abt. 1653, Paris, France - , )
Marie Pelletier (abt. 1646, , France - 30 June 1707, Québec, Québec, Canada (Quebec City))
Marie-Anne Pelletier dite Passavant (1641, , France - 12 December 1686, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Marguerite Pelois (abt. 1644, , France - 16 December 1723, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Anne Perrault (17 November 1647, Paris, France - 29 June 1688, Saint-Jean-de-l'Île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada )
Marie Pescher (June 1645, , France - 19 November 1728, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Jeanne Petit (abt. 1656, La Rochelle, Charente-Maritime, Poitou-Charentes, France - 29 March 1733, Longueuil, Québec, Canada (Saint-Antoine-de-Longueuil))
Marie-Rose Petit (abt. 1646, , France - 5 February 1719, Québec, Québec, Canada (Quebec City))
Marie-Thérèse Petit (abt. 1652, Paris, France - 24 May 1738, Contrecœur, Québec, Canada (Sainte-Trinité-de-Contrecoeur))
Marguerite Peuvrier (abt. 1639, Paris, France - 10 January 1709, Québec, Québec, Canada (Quebec City))
Marie-Madeleine Philippe (abt. 1651, , France - 9 January 1724, Lotbinière, Québec, Canada (Saint-Louis))
Nicole Philippeau (1655, , France - 11 May 1716, Varennes, Québec, Canada (Sainte-Anne-de-Varennes))
Françoise Pieton (abt. 1651, Bretagne, France (Brittany) - 18 September 1700, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Marie-Catherine Pillat (30 March 1646, La Rochelle, Charente-Maritime, Poitou-Charentes, France - 23 July 1717, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Françoise Pilois (abt. 1635, Paris, France - 28 February 1713, Beaumont, Québec, Canada (Saint-Étienne-de-Beaumont))
Françoise Pilois (bet. 1639-1645, Paris, France - 28 February 1713, Beaumont, Québec, Canada (Saint-Étienne-de-Beaumont))
Anne Pineault dite La Vieville (abt. 1651, , France - 1716, Cap-St-Ignace, Québec, Canada (Saint-Ignace-de-Loyola))
Marie Piton (abt. 1651, , France - 25 April 1728, Beauport, Québec, Québec, Canada (Notre-Dame-de-la-Nativité-de-Beauport))
Isabelle Planteau (, , France - December 1688, , Texas, USA)
Marie-Madeleine Plouard (Plouart) (1 May 1653, Dieppe, France - abt. 1684, Chambly, Québec, Canada (Saint-Joseph-de-Chambly))
Marthe Pointel (abt. 1641, , France - 10 September 1674, Sainte-Famille-de-l'île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada)
Marie Poire (abt. 1641, Paris, France - 6 January 1715, Neuville, Portneuf, Québec, Canada (Saint-François-de-Sales))
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