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Filles du Roi (King's Daughters)


Between 1663 and 1673, 768 Filles du Roi or "King’s Daughters" emigrated to New France under the sponsorship of the French government as part of the overall strategy of strengthening the colony until it could stand on its own without economic and military dependence on France.

In 1663, the King took over direct control of the government of New France and initiated an organized system of recruiting and transporting marriageable women to the colony. On September 22, 1663, thirty-six girls –the first group of Filles du Roi– arrived in Québec.

The recruiting of Filles du Roi took place largely in Paris, Rouen and other northern cities by merchants and ship outfitters. A screening process required each girl to present her birth certificate and a recommendation from her parish priest or local magistrate stating that she was free to marry. It was necessary that the girls be of appropriate age for giving birth and that "they be healthy and strong for country work, or that they at least have some aptitude for household chores."

The cost of sending each Fille du Roi to New France was 100 livres: 10 for the recruitment, 30 for clothing and 60 for the crossing itself. Upon arrival, the Filles received suitable clothing and some provisions.

All of the Filles du Roi first landed at Québec City where 560 remained, with 133 being sent to Montréal and 75 to Trois-Rivières.

When selecting a Fille du Roi, the suitor looked beyond outward appearances and considered the practical attributes of a bride that would be adapted or disposed to the rigors of the colony. The preference seems to have been for peasant girls because they were healthy and industrious, as opposed to city girls who were often considered lightheaded and lazy.

Every Fille du Roi had the right to refuse any marriage offer that was presented. In order to make an informed decision to accept a would-be husband, the girls asked questions about the suitor’s home, finances, land and profession. Having a home of one’s own was one of the most important considerations for a Fille du Roi.

In addition to any dowry of goods that the bride may have brought with her from France, each couple was given an assortment of livestock and goods to start them off in married life: a pair of chickens and pigs, an ox, a cow and two barrels of salted meat. The King’s Gift of 50 livres is believed to have been a customary addition to the dowry, but only 250 out of 606 known marriage contracts make reference to an additional dowry given by the King. Once married, there was an incentive to have large families. A yearly pension of 300 livres was granted to families with ten children, rising to 400 livres for 12 children and more for larger families.

In September 1673 the last shipment of Filles du Roi arrived from France, and the program ended. The population of New France had risen to 6,700 people, an increase of 168% in the eleven years since the program had begun.

Source: Peter J. Gagné, King’s Daughters and Founding Mothers: The Filles du Roi, 1663-1673, (Pawtucket, RI: Quinton Publications, 2001)




Histoire du Québec 6 - Les Filles du Roi (in French) (www.youtube.com)


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Marguerite Gaillard dite Duplessis (1637, , France - , )
Anne Galais (Galaise) (Galet) (abt. 1646, , France - , )
Marguerite Gambier (abt. 1637, , France - 1677, Sillery, Québec, Québec, Canada* )
Louise Gargottin (abt. 1637, La Rochelle, Charente-Maritime, Poitou-Charentes, France - , )
Catherine Gateau (abt. 1651, Paris, France - 21 April 1726, Nicolet, Québec, Canada )
Madeleine Gaumont (Gaumond) (abt. 1646, , France - 22 July 1703, Champlain, Québec, Canada )
Marie-Jeanne Gauthier (abt. 1648, , France - aft. 09 October 1713, La-Pérade, Québec, Canada )
Anne Gendreau (abt. 1642, Luçon, France - 11 September 1721, Québec, Québec, Canada )
Jeanne-Léonarde Genest (abt. 1651, , France - 3 November 1728, La Visitation-de-l'Île-Dupas, Québec, Canada )
Anne Geoffroy (16 May 1638, , France - , )
Marie-Jeanne Gilles (abt. 1648, Paris, France - 24 September 1708, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Anne Girard (3 February 1630 , , France - 23 August 1710, Varennes, Québec, Canada)
Marguerite Girard (abt. 1649, Burgundy, France - , )
Mathurine Goard (abt. 1648, Paris, France - 9 December 1720, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Jeanne Godequin (abt. 1647, , France - 4 October 1727, Saint-Antoine-de-Tilly, Québec, Canada)
Elisabeth Godillon (4 February 1649, , France - 24 January 1715, Lachenaie, Québec, Canada )
Noelle Gossard (abt. 1641, Paris, France - 19 November 1684, Saint-Pierre-de-l'Île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada)
Françoise Goubilleau (abt. 1631, , France - 10 November 1721, Rivière-des-Prairies, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Jeanne Grandin (abt. 1637, , France - 27 March 1712, Cap-Santé, Québec, Canada )
Marie Grandin (1651, , France - 14 July 1715, Québec, Québec, Canada )
Marie Grandin (abt. 1655, Rouen, France - 31 October 1708, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Adrienne Grandjean (abt. 1646, Paris, France - , )
Catherine Granger (1653, , France - 25 July 1731, Beauport, Québec, Québec, Canada* )
Mathurine Gratton (abt. 1645, , France - , )
Marie Gravois (abt. 1630, , France - 30 January 1708, Pointe-aux-Trembles, Montréal, Québec, Canada* )
Anne Grimbault (abt. 1645, Paris, France - 14 February 1718, Saint-Laurent-de-l'Île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada)
Madeleine Groleau (abt. 1653, La Rochelle, Charente-Maritime, Poitou-Charentes, France - 5 September 1703, Québec, Québec, Canada )
Marie-Anne Guédon (1641, , France - 22 March 1732, Québec, Québec, Canada )
Jeanne Gueneville (Quenneville) (abt. 1641, , France - 16 August 1717, Beaumont, Québec, Canada )
Catherine Guerard (1650, Paris, France - 11 October 1727, Champlain, Québec, Canada )
Madeleine Guérin (abt. 1647, , France - , )
Marie-Jeanne Guérin dite Brunet (abt. 1644, La Rochelle, Charente-Maritime, Poitou-Charentes, France - 4 December 1708, Château-Richer, Québec, Canada )
Bonne Guerrier (abt. 1645, Paris, France - 10 January 1707, Québec, Québec, Canada )
Anne Guillaume (1652, Paris, France - 30 January 1716, Saint-Nicolas, Lévis, Québec, Canada )
Marie Guillaume (abt. 1652, Paris, France - aft. 30 December 1705, Saint-Joachim, Montmorency, Québec, Canada)
Marie-Madeleine Guilleboeuf (abt. 1655, Rouen, France - 6 August 1711, Contrecœur, Québec, Canada )
Madeleine Guillodeau (Guillaudeau) (18 February 1639, , France - , )
Catherine Guyard (1639, Paris, France - aft. 23 July 1703, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Marie Guyet (1648, La Rochelle, Charente-Maritime, Poitou-Charentes, France - 2 January 1701, Québec, Québec, Canada )

H
Marie Halay (1639, , France - December 1700, Charlesbourg, Québec, Québec, Canada )
Magdeleine Hanneton (1644, Paris, France - 13 March 1688, Boucherville, Québec, Canada)
Marie Hatanville (1646, , France - 28 April 1723, Boucherville, Québec, Canada)
Marie-Madeleine Hébert (1653, , France - aft. 3 December 1716, La Prairie, Québec, Canada )
Marie-Marguerite Hedouin (abt. 1655, , France - 1 June 1718, Charlesbourg, Québec, Québec, Canada )
Jacqueline-Marie Heron (1645, Paris, France - 17 November 1716, Québec, Québec, Canada )
Marguerite Hiardin (30 August 1645, Champagne, France - 29 May 1720, Saint-François-de-l'Île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada )
Marguerite Housseau (abt. 1649, , France - , )
Elisabeth-Isabelle Hubert (abt. 1643, Paris, France - , )
Marie Hubert (abt. 1655, Paris, France - , )
Françoise Huche (abt. 1642, , France - 12 May 1699, Sainte-Foy, Québec, Québec, Canada* )
Marie Huet (Hué) (1 June 1642, , France - 19 October 1716, Québec, Québec, Canada )

I
Marguerite Itasse (Itas) (abt. 1649, , France - 28 October 1689, Trois-Rivières, Québec, Canada )

J
Marie Jalais (abt. 1653, , France - 8 December 1721, Québec, Québec, Canada )
Marie Jodon (abt. 1640, La Rochelle, Charente-Maritime, Poitou-Charentes, France - 1681, Charlesbourg, Québec, Québec, Canada )
Charlotte-Catherine Jolivet (1646, , France - 15 November 1699, Lachenaie, Québec, Canada )
Charlotte Joly (1648, , France - 2 December 1718, Québec, Québec, Canada )
Élisabeth Jossard (abt. 1652, Paris, France - 9 November 1728, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Marie-Marguerite Jourdain (12 November 1648, Rouen, France - 19 May 1720, Saint-Sulpice, Québec, Canada)
Jeanne Juin (abt. 1655, Paris, France - 1689, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Anne Julien (abt. 1651, Paris, France - , )

L
Antoinette-Renee Labastille dite Martin (1649, Paris, France - , )
Jacqueline Labbe (abt. 1651, , France - 1 November 1721, Longueuil, Québec, Canada )
Jeanne Labbe (abt. 1649, , France - 27 May 1715, Saint-Vallier, Québec, Canada)
Suzanne Lacroix (abt. 1656, Paris, France - 14 December 1718, Québec, Québec, Canada )
Marie Lafaye (abt. 1643, Saintes, Charente-Maritime, France - 29 December 1708, Saint-François-de-l'Île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada )
Joachine Lafleur (abt. 1644, , France - April 1681, Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures, Québec, Canada)
Marie-Anne Lafontaine (abt. 1641, Paris, France - 16 October 1702, Saint-Laurent-de-l'Île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada)
Anne Lagüe (Lagoue) (abt. 1652, , France - 16 December 1728, Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures, Québec, Canada)
Catherine Laîné (6 February 1654, , France - 9 January 1715 , Sainte-Famille, L'Île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada)
Geneviève Laîné (abt. 1642, Paris, France - 7 April 1689, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Anne Laîné (Laîsné) (abt. 1647, , France - 16 May 1725, Québec, Québec, Canada )
Marguerite Lamain (abt. 1657, Rouen, France - aft. 10 October 1714, , Québec Province, Canada )
Charlotte Lamarche (abt. 1646, , France - 15 February 1671, Boucherville, Québec, Canada)
Anne Lamarre (abt. 1645, Paris, France - 19 June 1698, Québec, Québec, Canada )
Marguerite Lamirault (abt. 1645, Paris, France - 17 October 1706, Québec, Québec, Canada )
Marie Lamy (1655, , France - 15 March 1733, Saint-Ours, Québec, Canada)
Anne Langlois (14 April 1652, , France - 6 December 1724, Saint-Jean-de-l'Île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada )
Marie Langlois (abt. 1639, , France - , )
Marie Langlois (23 October 1642, , France - 8 November 1688, Chambly, Québec, Canada )
Marie-Jeanne Languille (27 April 1643, , France - 12 March 1711, Charlesbourg, Québec, Québec, Canada )
Périnne Lapierre (abt. 1642, , France - 24 April 1712, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Françoise Larchevêque (abt. 1641, , France - 4 July 1711, Neuville, Portneuf, Québec, Canada )
Marie Lasnon (22 September 1647, Rouen, France - 10 March 1727, Québec, Québec, Canada )
Françoise Latier (abt. 1649, Paris, France - , )
Marguerite Latouche (1656, , France - 21 May 1732, Saint-Laurent-de-l'Île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada)
Claude-Marie Laval (abt. 1651, , France - aft. 16 April 1703, Québec, Québec, Canada )
Marguerite Laverdure (abt. 1640, , France - 22 August 1727, Saint-Pierre-de-l'Île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada)
Marie Le Seigneur (abt. 1641, , France - , )
Anne Leblanc (abt. 1649, , France - 28 November 1734, Québec, Québec, Canada )
Anne Leclerc (21 February 1637, Dieppe, France - 4 October 1716, Saint-François-de-l'Île-d'Orléans, Québec, Canada )
Denise Leclerc (abt. 1654, Paris, France - , , Québec Province, Canada )
Geneviève Leclerc (1640, Rouen, France - 24 April 1687, Lauzon, Québec, Canada )
Marguerite Leclerc (20 July 1629, , France - 31 May 1704, Montréal, Québec, Canada )
Suzanne Lecompte (abt. 1639, , France - 24 December 1666, Cap-de-la-Madeleine, Québec, Canada* )
Louise Lecoutre (abt. 1648, , France - aft. 6 December 1708, Cap-de-la-Madeleine, Québec, Canada* )
Antoinette Lefebvre (abt. 1653, , France - aft. 1713, Champlain, Québec, Canada )
Elizabeth-Agnes Lefebvre (abt. 1655, , France - 8 July 1725, Cap-St-Ignace, Québec, Canada )
Marie Lefebvre (1645, , France - 1728, La-Pérade, Québec, Canada )
Marie Lefebvre (1650, , France - , )
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